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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 3, 2019.

Registration No. 333-          


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



SCHOLAR ROCK HOLDING CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)



Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  82-3750435
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139
(Address of principal executive offices)



(857) 259-3860
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)



Nagesh K. Mahanthappa
President and Chief Executive Officer
620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor
Cambridge, MA 02139
(857) 259-3860

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)



With copies to:


Kingsley L. Taft
Laurie A. Burlingame
Goodwin Procter LLP
100 Northern Ave.
Boston, MA 02210
(617) 570-1000

 

Junlin Ho
Scholar Rock Holding Corporation
620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor
Cambridge, MA 02139
(857) 259-3860



Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

             If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.    o

             If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:    ý

             If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

             If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

             If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.    o

             If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.    o

             Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer ý   Smaller reporting company ý

Emerging growth company ý

             If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ý



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

               
 
Title of Each Class of Securities
to be Registered

  Amount to be
Registered(1)

  Proposed Maximum
Offering Price Per
Unit(2)

  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(3)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(4)

 

Common Stock(5)

               
 

Preferred Stock(6)

               
 

Debt Securities(7)

               
 

Warrants(8)

               
 

Units(9)

               
 

Total

  $275,000,000   N.A.   $275,000,000   $33,330.00

 

(1)
The amount to be registered consists of up to $275,000,000 of an indeterminate amount of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units. There is also being registered hereunder such currently indeterminate number of (i) shares of common stock or other securities of the registrant as may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) shares of preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units as may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with the other securities registered hereunder.

(2)
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per unit will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

(3)
Estimated solely for purposes of computing the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for (i) common stock or other securities of the registrant that may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units that may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(4)
The registration fee has been calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(5)
Including such indeterminate amount of common stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(6)
Including such indeterminate amount of preferred stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(7)
Including such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(8)
Including such indeterminate number of warrants or other rights, including without limitation share purchase or subscription rights, as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices.

(9)
Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will represent an interest in two or more securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.

             THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE COMMISSION ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.

   


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

        This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

        The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus other than the shares under the sales agreement will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the sales agreement are specified in the sales agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus. The $75,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $275,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus.


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 3, 2019.

PROSPECTUS

$275,000,000

GRAPHIC

Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units



        We may from time to time issue, in one or more series or classes, up to $275,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units. We may offer these securities separately or together in units. We will specify in the accompanying prospectus supplement the terms of the securities being offered. We may sell these securities to or through underwriters and also to other purchasers or through agents. We will set forth the names of any underwriters or agents, and any fees, conversions, or discount arrangements, in the accompanying prospectus supplement. We may not sell any securities under this prospectus without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement.

        You should read this document and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities.

        Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SRRK." On May 30, 2019, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $18.77 per share. Our principal executive offices are located at 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139.



        Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading "Risk Factors" contained in this prospectus beginning on page 2 and any applicable prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

        Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

   

The date of this Prospectus is                    , 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page  

About this Prospectus

    1  

Risk Factors

    2  

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

    3  

The Company

    5  

Use of Proceeds

    8  

Securities We May Offer

    9  

Description of Capital Stock

    10  

Description of Debt Securities

    18  

Description of Warrants

    34  

Description of Units

    35  

Plan of Distribution

    38  

Legal Matters

    41  

Experts

    41  

Where You Can Find More Information

    41  

Incorporation by Reference

    41  

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a "shelf" registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $275,000,000.

        This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading "Where You Can Find More Information".

        You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

        Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to "Scholar Rock", "we", "our", "us" and "the Company" refer, collectively, to Scholar Rock Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries.

        We own various U.S. federal trademark applications and unregistered trademarks, including "Scholar Rock" and our corporate logo. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and ™, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies' trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

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RISK FACTORS

        Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described below and in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, (ii) our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference and (iii) other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as "anticipate," "believe," "contemplate," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "plan," "potential," "predict," "project," "seek," "should," "target," "will," "would," and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section "Risk Factors."

        This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management's belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

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        We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein, particularly in the "Risk Factors" sections of these documents, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance.

        You should read this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein represent our views as of the date of this prospectus. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus.

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THE COMPANY

        We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of innovative medicines for the treatment of serious diseases in which signaling by protein growth factors plays a fundamental role. Our novel understanding of the molecular mechanisms of growth factor activation enabled us to develop a proprietary platform for the discovery and development of monoclonal antibodies that locally and selectively target these signaling proteins at the cellular level. We believe this approach, acting in the disease microenvironment, avoids the historical challenges associated with inhibiting growth factors for therapeutic effect. We believe our focus on biologically validated growth factors may facilitate a more efficient development path. Our lead product candidate, SRK-015, is a highly selective, fully human, monoclonal antibody, with a unique mechanism of action that results in inhibition of the activation of the growth factor, myostatin, in skeletal muscle. We have advanced SRK-015 as a potential first muscle-directed therapy for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy ("SMA") into clinical development. In May 2018, we initiated our Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-015 in healthy volunteers and in February 2019, we announced favorable interim safety and tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetic data, which supported the advancement of SRK-015 to a Phase 2 clinical trial. We commenced patient dosing for our Phase 2 clinical trial in SMA in April 2019. Our second product candidate, SRK-181, is being developed for the treatment of cancers resistant to checkpoint blockade therapies ("CBTs") such as anti-PD1 or anti-PDL 1 antibodies. SRK-181 is a highly selective inhibitor of the activation of transforming growth factor beta-1 ("TGFb1"). We intend to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-181 in cancer immunotherapy in mid-2020. In addition, utilizing our proprietary platform, we are continuing to create a pipeline of novel product candidates with the potential to transform the lives of patients suffering from a wide range of serious diseases, including other neuromuscular disorders, cancer, fibrosis and anemia.

        Our proprietary platform is designed to discover and develop monoclonal antibodies that have a high degree of specificity to achieve selective modulation of growth factor signaling. Growth factors are naturally occurring proteins that typically act as signaling molecules between cells and play a fundamental role in regulating a variety of normal cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation. Current therapeutic approaches to treating diseases in which growth factors play a fundamental role involve directly targeting an active growth factor or its receptor systemically throughout the body and have suffered from a variety of shortcomings:

        Our innovative approach is rooted in our structural biology insights into the mechanism by which certain growth factors are activated in close proximity to the cell surface. We integrate these insights with sophisticated protein expression, assay development and monoclonal antibody discovery capabilities. We believe our proprietary platform can address the challenges of current therapeutic approaches to treating diseases in which growth factors play a fundamental role by:

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        We have advanced our lead antibody product candidate, SRK-015, a novel, highly selective inhibitor of the activation of myostatin, into clinical development for the treatment of SMA. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass expressed primarily in skeletal muscle tissue, and a member of the transforming growth factor beta, or TGFb, superfamily, a group of more than 30 related growth factors that mediate diverse biological processes. Vertebrate animals that lack the myostatin gene display increased muscle mass and strength relative to their normal counterparts, but are otherwise healthy. We believe selective inhibition of myostatin activation may promote a clinically meaningful increase in motor function. As a result, we have focused our initial development efforts for SRK-015 on the treatment of SMA. SMA is a rare, and often fatal, genetic disorder arising from a deficiency of a protein known as "survival of motor neuron," or SMN. This disease typically manifests in young children and is characterized by atrophy of the voluntary muscles of the limbs and trunk and dramatically reduced normal neuromuscular function. An estimated 30,000 to 35,000 patients suffer from SMA in the United States and Europe alone. In preclinical studies, we observed that SRK-015 promoted increased muscle mass and strength, and in vitro studies have shown that the antibody selectively avoids interaction with other closely related growth factors that play distinctly different physiological roles. We believe that SRK-015 has the potential to be the first muscle-directed therapy to improve motor function in patients with SMA and could be used both as a monotherapy or in conjunction with SMN upregulator therapies (i.e., therapies that upregulate the expression of SMN, such as SMN splicing modulators or gene therapy). In May 2018, we initiated our Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-015 in healthy volunteers and in February 2019, we announced favorable interim safety and tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetic data, which supported the advancement of SRK-015 to a Phase 2 clinical trial. We commenced patient dosing for our Phase 2 clinical trial in SMA in April 2019.

        Our second antibody program is focused on the discovery and development of highly specific inhibitors of the activation of TGFb1. TGFb1 is also a member of the TGFb superfamily, and increased signaling by TGFb1 is a key driver of a number of disease-relevant processes, including tissue and organ fibrosis, immune system evasion by cancer cells, and bone marrow fibrosis associated with hematological disorders. Historically, selectively targeting TGFb1 signaling has been challenging due to the inability of both small molecule inhibitors and antibodies to avoid off-target inhibition of other, closely related growth factors, TGFb2 and TGFb3. Treatment of animals with these pan-TGFb inhibitors has been associated with a range of toxicities, most notably cardiac toxicity. In preclinical studies of our antibodies, we have observed specific inhibition of TGFb1 activation in vitro and immunomodulatory and antifibrotic activity in multiple disease models in vivo. In addition, we have completed a 28-day pilot nonclinical toxicology study in rats of our leading antibody and we did not observe any drug-related toxicity up to the highest doses tested in the study. In the same study, we tested pan-TGFb inhibitors and observed the toxicities, including cardiac toxicity, that have been observed by others. Based on this program, in December 2018, we announced a major collaboration with Gilead Sciences, Inc., or Gilead, in the area of discovering, developing, and commercializing treatments for fibrotic diseases using highly specific inhibitors of the activation of TGFb. We retained exclusive worldwide rights to discover, develop, and commercialize certain TGFb1 inhibitors for oncology and cancer immunotherapy. In March 2019, we nominated SRK-181 as a product candidate for the treatment of cancers that are resistant to CBTs and intend to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-181 in cancer immunotherapy in mid-2020.

        Our third antibody program targets the signaling of bone morphogenetic protein 6, or BMP6, another member of the TGFb superfamily, which is involved in a diverse set of biological processes in various parts of the body. For example, in the liver, BMP6 signaling is a key controller of the body's

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ability to regulate iron levels. Given BMP6's important role in iron metabolism, we believe that targeting BMP6 signaling in a liver-selective fashion presents the potential to address both iron-restricted anemias and iron overload conditions. In preclinical studies of our antibodies that target BMP6 signaling in the liver, we have observed increased serum iron levels in healthy animals and we are now evaluating a limited number of these antibodies in disease models of iron-restricted anemia.

        We have worldwide rights to our proprietary platform and all of our product candidates and antibodies with the exception of those that are subject to our collaboration with Gilead and certain early-stage antibodies that specifically inhibit the activation of TGFb1 in the context of regulatory T cells, which we licensed to Janssen Biotech, Inc., or Janssen, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, in December 2013.

        We were incorporated in 2017 under the laws of the State of Delaware as the holding company for Scholar Rock, Inc. Scholar Rock, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Scholar Rock, LLC. On December 22, 2017, we completed a series of transactions pursuant to which Scholar Rock Merger Sub, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, was merged with and into Scholar Rock, LLC (the "Reorganization"). The purpose of the Reorganization was to reorganize our corporate structure so that we would continue as a corporation and so that our investors prior to the Reorganization would own our capital stock after the Reorganization rather than equity interests in a limited liability company. All of our convertible preferred stock converted into shares of common stock upon the completion of our initial public offering at the then effective conversion ratio.

        Our principal executive offices are located at 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, and our phone number is (857) 259-3860. Our website address is http://www.scholarrock.com. The information contained in or accessible from our website is not incorporated into this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

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SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

        This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

        The following description of our common stock and preferred stock, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the common stock and preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus. The following description of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended to date, and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and by applicable law. We refer in this section to our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended to date, as our "certificate of incorporation," and we refer to our Amended and Restated Bylaws as our "bylaws." The terms of our common stock and preferred stock may also be affected by Delaware law.

Authorized Capital Stock

        Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.

        As of March 31, 2019, 26,217,447 shares of our common stock were outstanding and held by approximately 58 stockholders of record, of which 571,437 shares were subject to future vesting. In addition, as of March 31, 2019, we had outstanding options to purchase 2,271,870 shares of our common stock, at a weighted average exercise price of $12.03 per share, 318,576 of which were exercisable and an outstanding warrant to purchase 7,614 shares of our common stock, at an exercise price of $3.94 per share.

Common Stock

        The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by the board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.

        In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. The shares to be issued by us will be, when issued and paid for, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

Listing

        Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SRRK." On May 30, 2019, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $18.77 per share.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

        The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

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Preferred Stock

Undesignated Preferred Stock

        Our board of directors or any authorized committee thereof has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions thereof. No shares of preferred stock are outstanding, and we have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

        The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock in one or more series and determine the number of shares in the series and its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a shareholder vote on specific issuances. Examples of rights and preferences that the board of directors may fix are:

        The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of us or our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer, stockholder or stockholder group. The rights of holders of our common stock described above will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of any preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Additional Series of Preferred Stock

        We will incorporate by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. This description and the applicable prospectus supplement will include:

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        When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

Registration Rights

        Holders of our Registrable Securities, as defined in our investors' rights agreement, or the Investor Rights Agreement, and Gilead, pursuant to a registration rights agreement, or Registration Rights Agreement, respectively, are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of certain shares under the Securities Act as hereinafter described. These rights are provided under the terms of the Investor Rights Agreement and Registration Rights Agreement, and include demand registration rights, short-form and shelf registration rights and piggyback registration rights. All fees, costs and expenses of underwritten registrations, subject to certain restrictions, will be borne by us and all selling expenses, including underwriting discounts and selling commissions, will be borne by the holders of the shares being registered.

Demand Registration Rights

        Certain holders of our Registrable Securities, are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the Investor Rights Agreement, we are required, upon the written request of holders of at least 80% of these securities then outstanding to file a Form S-1 registration with respect to at least 20% of such securities, to file such registration statement and use commercially reasonable efforts to cause such registration statement to become effective, subject to certain exceptions. We are required to effect up to two registrations pursuant to this provision of the Investor Rights Agreement.

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        Under the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement with Gilead, beginning on December 19, 2020, we are required, upon the written request of the stockholder to register securities with an aggregate value of at least $10.0 million based on then-current value of the securities, to use reasonable best efforts to effect the registration of such shares on Form S-1, subject to certain exceptions. Under the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement, we are required to effect up to two registrations pursuant to this provision, and the short-form and shelf registration rights provisions of the Registration Rights Agreement, except that the number of shelf takedowns that are not underwritten offerings are not limited.

        An aggregate of 9,019,745 shares of common stock are entitled to the demand registration rights under the Investor Rights Agreement. An aggregate of 980,392 shares of common stock are entitled to the demand registration rights under the Registration Rights Agreement.

Short-Form and Shelf Registration Rights

        Certain holders of our Registrable Securities are also entitled to short-form registration rights. Under the terms of the Investor Rights Agreement, if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the written request of holders of at least 20% of these securities then outstanding to sell registrable securities at an aggregate price, net of selling expenses, of at least $10.0 million, we will be required to file such registration statement and use commercially reasonable efforts to cause such registration statement to become effective, subject to certain exceptions. We are required to effect up to two registrations in any twelve-month period pursuant to this provision of the Investor Rights Agreement.

        Under the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement, beginning on December 19, 2020, if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the written request of the stockholder to register securities with an aggregate value of at least $3.0 million based on then-current value of the securities, we will use reasonable best efforts to cause registration of the securities on Form S-3. In addition, under the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement, upon the written request of the stockholder, we will be required to file a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 to register the securities pursuant to Securities Act Rule 415 and use our reasonable best efforts to cause such shelf registration statement to become effective, subject to certain exceptions.

        The right to have such shares registered on Form S-3 is further subject to other specified conditions and limitations in each case.

        An aggregate of 9,019,745 shares of common stock are entitled to these Form S-3 registration rights under the Investor Rights Agreement. An aggregate of 980,392 shares of common stock are entitled to the Form S-3 registration rights under the Registration Rights Agreement.

Piggyback Registration Rights

        Certain holders of our Registrable Securities are entitled to piggyback registration rights. If we propose to register any of our securities, either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, under the Investor Rights Agreement, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration, subject to certain exceptions, and under the Registration Rights Agreement, we will use reasonable best efforts to include the stockholder's shares in the registration.

        Under the Investor Rights Agreement and Registration Rights Agreement, subject to certain exceptions, the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering to the number of shares which the underwriters determine in their sole discretion will not jeopardize the success of the offering, including, specifically, under the Registration Rights Agreement, where the underwriter has determined that in their opinion there is a risk that the price of the securities will be reduced or the number of securities intended to be included on our behalf will be reduced.

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        An aggregate of 9,019,745 shares of common stock are entitled to these piggyback registration rights under the Investor Rights Agreement. An aggregate of 980,392 shares of common stock are entitled to these piggyback registration rights under the Registration Rights Agreement.

Indemnification

        The Investor Rights Agreement and Registration Rights Agreement contain customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of our Registrable Securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Expiration of Registration Rights

        The registration rights granted under the Investor Rights Agreement will terminate on the earliest of (i) a deemed liquidation event, as defined in the Investor Rights Agreement, (ii) the third anniversary of the closing of the IPO and (iii) at such time after the closing of the IPO when the holders' shares may be sold without restriction pursuant to Rule 144 within a three-month period.

        The registration rights granted under the Registration Rights Agreement will terminate, with respect to 50% of the Registrable Securities held by the stockholder, on December 19, 2023 and with respect to 50% of the Registrable Securities held by the stockholder, on December 19, 2024.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Our Bylaws

        Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain certain provisions that are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of the board of directors and which may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a future takeover or change in control of the company unless such takeover or change in control is approved by the board of directors.

        These provisions include:

        Classified Board.    Our certificate of incorporation provides that our board of directors is divided into three classes of directors, with the classes as nearly equal in number as possible. As a result, approximately one-third of our board of directors will be elected each year. The classification of directors has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board. Our certificate of incorporation provides that, subject to any rights of holders of preferred stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the number of directors will be fixed exclusively pursuant to a resolution adopted by our board of directors. Our board of directors has eight members. Our certificate of incorporation provides that the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote, and the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote as a class, is required to amend or repeal the foregoing provision. This requirement of a supermajority vote to amend or repeal that provision of our bylaws could enable a minority of our stockholders to prevent a declassification of our Board.

        Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings of Stockholders.    Our certificate of incorporation provides that stockholder action can be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders and cannot be taken by written consent in lieu of a meeting. This limit may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our bylaws or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders. Our certificate of incorporation provides that the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote, and the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote as a class, is required to amend or repeal the foregoing provision. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special

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meetings of the stockholders can be called only by or at the direction of the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of directors, and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting. Stockholders are not permitted to call a special meeting or to require the board of directors to call a special meeting. Our bylaws provide that the affirmative vote of at least two thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, and of each class entitled to vote, respectively, is required to amend the or repeal the provision in our bylaws that provides that special meetings of the stockholders can be called only by or at the direction of the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of directors, unless the Board first recommends such amendment or repeal to stockholders. This requirement of a supermajority vote to amend or repeal that provision of our bylaws could enable a minority of our stockholders to prevent a change to such provision and has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders.

        Removal of Directors.    Our certificate of incorporation provides that our directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors, at a meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office even if less than a quorum. This requirement of a supermajority vote to remove directors could enable a minority of our stockholders to prevent a change in the composition of our board, and the treatment of vacancies also has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board.

        Advance Notice Procedures.    Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to the board of directors. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our bylaws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders' notices. Stockholders at an annual meeting will only be able to consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the board of directors or by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has given our secretary timely written notice, in proper form, of the stockholder's intention to bring that business before the meeting. Although the bylaws do not give the board of directors the power to approve or disapprove stockholder nominations of candidates or proposals regarding other business to be conducted at a special or annual meeting, the bylaws may have the effect of precluding the conduct of certain business at a meeting if the proper procedures are not followed or may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the company.

        Super Majority Approval Requirements and Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws.    Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, limitation of liability and the amendment of our bylaws and certificate of incorporation must be approved by not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our bylaws may be amended by the affirmative

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vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the bylaws, and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.

        Authorized but Unissued Shares.    Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval. These additional shares may be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital and corporate acquisitions. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of a majority of our common stock by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of convertible preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of convertible preferred stock. The issuance of shares of convertible preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

        Choice of Forum.    Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty or other wrongdoing by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders; (3) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; (4) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (5) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

        In addition, our bylaws contain a provision by virtue of which, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts will be the exclusive forum for any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. In addition, our bylaws provide that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our common stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions.

        We have chosen the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for such causes of action because our principal executive offices are located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Some companies that have adopted similar federal district court forum selection provisions are currently subject to a suit in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware brought by stockholders who assert that the federal district court forum selection provision is not enforceable. On December 19, 2018, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware issued a decision declaring that federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are ineffective and invalid under Delaware law. On January 17, 2019, the decision was appealed to the Delaware Supreme Court. While the Delaware Supreme Court recently dismissed the appeal on jurisdictional grounds, we expect that the appeal will be re-filed after the Court of Chancery issues a final judgment. Unless and until the Court of Chancery's decision is reversed by the Delaware Supreme Court or otherwise abrogated, we do not intend to enforce our federal forum selection provision designating the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for Securities Act claims. In the event that the Delaware Supreme Court affirms the Court of Chancery's decision or otherwise

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determines that federal forum selection provisions are invalid, our board of directors intends to amend promptly our bylaws to remove our federal forum selection bylaw provision.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

        We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or Section 203. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a "business combination" with an "interested stockholder" for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A "business combination" includes, among other things, a merger, asset or stock sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An "interested stockholder" is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or did own within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, 15% or more of the corporation's voting stock.

        Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions: before the stockholder became interested, the board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder; upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances; or at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

        A Delaware corporation may "opt out" of these provisions with an express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or an express provision in its certificate of incorporation or bylaws resulting from a stockholders' amendment approved by at least a majority of the outstanding voting shares. We have not opted out of these provisions. As a result, mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts of us may be discouraged or prevented.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

        The paragraphs below describe the general terms and provisions of the debt securities we may issue. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the securities in a supplement to this prospectus, including any additional covenants or changes to existing covenants relating to such series. The prospectus supplement also will indicate whether the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. You should read the actual indenture if you do not fully understand a term or the way we use it in this prospectus.

        We may offer senior or subordinated debt securities. Each series of debt securities may have different terms. The senior debt securities will be issued under one or more senior indentures, dated as of a date prior to such issuance, between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the "senior indenture." Any subordinated debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures, dated as of a date prior to such issuance, between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the "subordinated indenture" and to the trustee under the senior or subordinated indenture as the "trustee." The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are sometimes collectively referred to in this prospectus as the "indentures." The indentures will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. We included copies of the forms of the indentures as exhibits to our registration statement and they are incorporated into this prospectus by reference.

        If we issue debt securities at a discount from their principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the aggregate initial offering price of the offered securities issued under this prospectus, we will include only the initial offering price of the debt securities and not the principal amount of the debt securities.

        We have summarized below the material provisions of the indentures and the debt securities, or indicated which material provisions will be described in the related prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement relating to any particular securities offered will describe the specific terms of the securities, which may be in addition to or different from the general terms summarized in this prospectus. Because the summary in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that you may find useful, you should read the documents relating to the securities that are described in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement. Please read "Where You Can Find More Information" to find out how you can obtain a copy of those documents. Except as otherwise indicated, the terms of the indentures are identical. As used under this caption, the term "debt securities" includes the debt securities being offered by this prospectus and all other debt securities issued by us under the indentures.

General

        The indentures:

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        Unless we give you different information in the applicable prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will be unsubordinated obligations and will rank equally with all of our other senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. Payments on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as described under "Description of Debt Securities—Subordination" and in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        Each indenture provides that we may, but need not, designate more than one trustee under an indenture. Any trustee under an indenture may resign or be removed and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to the series of debt securities administered by the resigning or removed trustee. If two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of debt securities, each trustee shall be a trustee of a trust under the applicable indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee. Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus, any action described in this prospectus to be taken by each trustee may be taken by each trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the one or more series of debt securities for which it is trustee under the applicable indenture.

        The prospectus supplement for each offering will provide the following terms, where applicable:

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        We may issue debt securities that provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities. We refer to any such debt securities throughout this prospectus as "original issue discount securities." The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the United States federal income tax consequences and other relevant considerations applicable to original issue discount securities.

        We also may issue indexed debt securities. Payments of principal of, and premium and interest on, indexed debt securities are determined with reference to the rate of exchange between the currency or currency unit in which the debt security is denominated and any other currency or currency unit specified by us, to the relationship between two or more currencies or currency units or by other similar methods or formulas specified in the prospectus supplement.

        Except as described under "—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets" or as may be set forth in any prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that (i) would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or (ii) would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of (a) a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us, or (b) a change of control or reorganization, restructuring, merger or similar transaction involving us that may adversely affect the holders of the debt securities. In the future, we may enter into transactions, such as the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a merger or consolidation, that may have an adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness, including the debt securities, by, among other things, substantially reducing or eliminating our assets.

        Our governing instruments do not define the term "substantially all" as it relates to the sale of assets. Additionally, Delaware cases interpreting the term "substantially all" rely upon the facts and

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circumstances of each particular case. Consequently, to determine whether a sale of "substantially all" of our assets has occurred, a holder of debt securities must review the financial and other information that we have disclosed to the public.

        We will provide you with more information in the applicable prospectus supplement regarding any deletions, modifications, or additions to the events of default or covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

Payment

        Unless we give you different information in the applicable prospectus supplement, the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, any series of the debt securities will be payable at the corporate trust office of the trustee. We will provide you with the address of the trustee in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may also pay interest by mailing a check to the address of the person entitled to it as it appears in the applicable register for the debt securities or by wire transfer of funds to that person at an account maintained within the United States.

        All monies that we pay to a paying agent or a trustee for the payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, any debt security will be repaid to us if unclaimed at the end of two years after the obligation underlying payment becomes due and payable. After funds have been returned to us, the holder of the debt security may look only to us for payment, without payment of interest for the period which we hold the funds.

Denomination, Interest, Registration and Transfer

        Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of any series will be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.

        Subject to the limitations imposed upon debt securities that are evidenced by a computerized entry in the records of a depository company rather than by physical delivery of a note, a holder of debt securities of any series may:

        Every debt security surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange must be duly endorsed or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer satisfactory to the applicable trustee or transfer agent. Payment of a service charge will not be required for any registration of transfer or exchange of any debt securities, but we or the trustee may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith. If in addition to the applicable trustee, the applicable prospectus supplement refers to any transfer agent initially designated by us for any series of debt securities, we may at any time rescind the designation of any such transfer agent or approve a change in the location through which any such transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for such series. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents for any series of debt securities.

        Neither we, nor any trustee, will be required to:

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Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

        The indentures provide that we may, without the consent of the holders of any outstanding debt securities, (i) consolidate with, (ii) sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or (iii) merge with or into, any other entity provided that:

Covenants

        Existence.    Except as described under "—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets," the indentures require us to do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect our existence, rights and franchises. However, the indentures do not require us to preserve any right or franchise if we determine that any right or franchise is no longer desirable in the conduct of our business.

        Payment of taxes and other claims.    The indentures require us to pay, discharge or cause to be paid or discharged, before they become delinquent (i) all taxes, assessments and governmental charges levied or imposed on us, and (ii) all lawful claims for labor, materials and supplies which, if unpaid, might by law become a lien upon our property. However, we will not be required to pay, discharge or cause to be paid or discharged any such tax, assessment, charge or claim whose amount, applicability or validity is being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings.

        Provision of financial information.    The indentures require us to (i) within 15 days of each of the respective dates by which we are required to file our annual reports, quarterly reports and other documents with the SEC, file with the trustee copies of the annual report, quarterly report and other documents that we file with the SEC under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, (ii) file with the trustee and the SEC any additional information, documents and reports regarding compliance by us with the conditions and covenants of the indentures, as required, (iii) within 30 days after the filing with the trustee, mail to all holders of debt securities, as their names and addresses appear in the applicable register for such debt securities, without cost to such holders, summaries of any documents and reports required to be filed by us pursuant to (i) and (ii) above, and (iv) supply, promptly upon written request and payment of the reasonable cost of duplication and delivery, copies of such documents to any prospective holder.

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        Additional covenants.    The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth any of our additional covenants relating to any series of debt securities.

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

        Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, when we refer to "events of default" as defined in the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities, we mean:

if the default results in the indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable prior to the date it otherwise would have, without such indebtedness having been discharged, or such acceleration having been rescinded or annulled, within 30 days after notice to the issuing company specifying such default. Such notice shall be given to us by the trustee, or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series. The written notice shall specify such default and require us to cause such indebtedness to be discharged or cause such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled and shall state that such notice is a "Notice of Default" under such indenture;

        If an event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to debt securities of any series outstanding, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the principal amount of all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable. If the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof to be due and payable. However, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the applicable trustee, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

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        The indentures also provide that the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may, on behalf of all holders, waive any past default with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default:

        The indentures require each trustee to give notice to the holders of debt securities within 90 days of a default unless such default has been cured or waived. However, the trustee may withhold notice if specified persons of such trustee consider such withholding to be in the interest of the holders of debt securities. The trustee may not withhold notice of a default in the payment of principal, any premium or interest on any debt security of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment in respect of any debt security of such series.

        The indentures provide that holders of debt securities of any series may not institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to such indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless the trustee fails to act for a period of 60 days after the trustee has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee. However, this provision will not prevent any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities at the respective due dates thereof.

        The indentures provide that, subject to provisions in each indenture relating to its duties in the case of a default, a trustee has no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders have offered to the trustee reasonable security or indemnity. The holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under an indenture shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee. However, a trustee may refuse to follow any direction which:

        Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we will be required to deliver to each trustee a certificate, signed by one of our several specified officers, stating whether or not that officer has knowledge of any default under the applicable indenture. If the officer has knowledge of any default, the notice must specify the nature and status of the default.

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Modification of the Indentures

        The indentures provide that modifications and amendments may be made only with the consent of the affected holders of a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities issued under that indenture. However, no such modification or amendment may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities affected by the modification or amendment:

        The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series may, on behalf of all holders of debt securities of that series, waive, insofar as that series is concerned, our compliance with material restrictive covenants of the applicable indenture.

        We and our respective trustee may make modifications and amendments of an indenture without the consent of any holder of debt securities for any of the following purposes:

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Voting

        The indentures provide that in determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver under the indentures or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of debt securities:

        The indentures contain provisions for convening meetings of the holders of debt securities of a series. A meeting will be permitted to be called at any time by the applicable trustee, and also, upon request, by us or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, in any such case upon notice given as provided in such indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each debt security affected by the modifications and amendments of an indenture described above, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series represented at such meeting.

        Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, except as referred to above, any resolution relating to a request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of such specified percentage.

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        Any resolution passed or decision taken at any properly held meeting of holders of debt securities of any series will be binding on all holders of such series. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be persons holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series. However, if any action is to be taken relating to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of at least a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, the persons holding such percentage will constitute a quorum.

        Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, the indentures provide that if any action is to be taken at a meeting with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that such indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities affected by such action, or of the holders of such series and one or more additional series:

Subordination

        Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, subordinated debt securities will be subject to the following subordination provisions.

        Upon any distribution to our creditors in a liquidation, dissolution or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on any subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the applicable indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior debt. However, our obligation to make payments of the principal of and interest on such subordinated debt securities otherwise will not be affected. No payment of principal or interest will be permitted to be made on subordinated debt securities at any time if a default on senior debt exists that permits the holders of such senior debt to accelerate its maturity and the default is the subject of judicial proceedings or we receive notice of the default. After all senior debt is paid in full and until the subordinated debt securities are paid in full, holders of subordinated debt securities will be subrogated to the rights of holders of senior debt to the extent that distributions otherwise payable to holders of subordinated debt securities have been applied to the payment of senior debt. The subordinated indenture will not restrict the amount of senior debt or other indebtedness of ours. As a result of these subordination provisions, in the event of a distribution of assets upon insolvency, holders of subordinated debt securities may recover less, ratably, than our general creditors.

        The term "senior debt" will be defined in the applicable indenture as the principal of and interest on, or substantially similar payments to be made by us in respect of, other outstanding indebtedness, whether outstanding at the date of execution of the applicable indenture or subsequently incurred, created or assumed. The prospectus supplement may include a description of additional terms implementing the subordination feature.

        No restrictions will be included in any indenture relating to subordinated debt securities upon the creation of additional senior debt.

        If this prospectus is being delivered in connection with the offering of a series of subordinated debt securities, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated in this prospectus by reference will set forth the approximate amount of senior debt outstanding as of the end of our most recent fiscal quarter.

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Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

        Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures allow us to discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities issued under any indenture when:

        Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures provide that, upon our irrevocable deposit with the applicable trustee, in trust, of an amount, in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable at stated maturity, or government obligations, or both, applicable to such debt securities, which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments thereon, on the scheduled due dates therefor, the issuing company may elect either:

        Notwithstanding the above, we may not elect to defease and be discharged from the obligation to pay any additional amounts upon the occurrence of particular events of tax, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on such debt securities and the obligations to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities, to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities, to maintain an office or agency in respect of such debt securities, or to hold monies for payment in trust.

        The indentures only permit us to establish the trust described in the paragraph above if, among other things, we have delivered to the applicable trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of such debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of such defeasance or covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such defeasance or covenant defeasance had not occurred. Such opinion of counsel, in the case of defeasance, will be required to refer to and be based upon a ruling received from or published by the Internal Revenue Service or a change in applicable United States federal income tax law occurring after the date of the indenture. In the event of such defeasance, the holders of such debt securities would be able to look only to such trust fund for payment of principal, any premium or make-whole amount, and interest.

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        When we use the term "government obligations," we mean securities that are:

        Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if after we have deposited funds and/or government obligations to effect defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to debt securities of any series, (i) the holder of a debt security of such series is entitled to, and does, elect under the terms of the applicable indenture or the terms of such debt security to receive payment in a currency, currency unit or composite currency other than that in which such deposit has been made in respect of such debt security, or (ii) a conversion event occurs in respect of the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such deposit has been made, the indebtedness represented by such debt security will be deemed to have been, and will be, fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of, and premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt security as they become due out of the proceeds yielded by converting the amount so deposited in respect of such debt security into the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt security becomes payable as a result of such election or such cessation of usage based on the applicable market exchange rate.

        When we use the term "conversion event," we mean the cessation of use of:

        Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, all payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, any debt security that is payable in a foreign currency that ceases to be used by its government of issuance shall be made in United States dollars.

        In the event that (i) we effect covenant defeasance with respect to any debt securities and (ii) those debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any event of default, the amount in the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt securities are payable, and government obligations on deposit with the applicable trustee, will be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from such event of

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default. However, the issuing company would remain liable to make payments of any amounts due at the time of acceleration.

        The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting such defeasance or covenant defeasance, including any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to the debt securities of or within a particular series.

Conversion Rights

        The terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities are convertible into common stock or other securities of ours will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include whether the debt securities are convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of ours, the conversion price, or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the issuing company's option or the option of the holders, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of the debt securities and any restrictions on conversion.

Global Securities

        The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depository identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series. Global securities, if any, issued in the United States are expected to be deposited with The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, as depository. We may issue global securities in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. We will describe the specific terms of the depository arrangement with respect to a series of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series. We expect that unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following provisions will apply to depository arrangements.

        Once a global security is issued, the depository for such global security or its nominee will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the individual debt securities represented by such global security to the accounts of participants that have accounts with such depository. Such accounts shall be designated by the underwriters, dealers or agents with respect to such debt securities or by us if we offer such debt securities directly. Ownership of beneficial interests in such global security will be limited to participants with the depository or persons that may hold interests through those participants.

        We expect that, under procedures established by DTC, ownership of beneficial interests in any global security for which DTC is the depository will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee, with respect to beneficial interests of participants with the depository, and records of participants, with respect to beneficial interests of persons who hold through participants with the depository. Neither we nor the trustee will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records of DTC or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records of DTC or any of its participants relating to beneficial ownership interests in the debt securities. The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such limits and laws may impair the ability to own, pledge or transfer beneficial interest in a global security.

        So long as the depository for a global security or its nominee is the registered owner of such global security, such depository or such nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture. Except as described below or in the applicable prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interest in a global security will not be entitled to have any of the individual debt securities represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical

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delivery of any such debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable indenture. Beneficial owners of debt securities evidenced by a global security will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable indenture for any purpose, including with respect to the giving of any direction, instructions or approvals to the trustee under the indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security with respect to which DTC is the depository must rely on the procedures of DTC and, if such person is not a participant with the depository, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interests, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture. We understand that, under existing industry practice, if DTC requests any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action which a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, DTC would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interest to give or take such action, and such participants would authorize beneficial owners through such participants to give or take such actions or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

        Payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, individual debt securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depository or its nominee will be made to or at the direction of the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security under the applicable indenture. Under the terms of the applicable indenture, we and the trustee may treat the persons in whose name debt securities, including a global security, are registered as the owners thereof for the purpose of receiving such payments. Consequently, neither we nor the trustee have or will have any responsibility or liability for the payment of such amounts to beneficial owners of debt securities including principal, any premium or make-whole amount, or interest. We believe, however, that it is currently the policy of DTC to immediately credit the accounts of relevant participants with such payments, in amounts proportionate to their respective holdings of beneficial interests in the relevant global security as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such global security held through such participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in street name, and will be the responsibility of such participants. Redemption notices with respect to any debt securities represented by a global security will be sent to the depository or its nominee. If less than all of the debt securities of any series are to be redeemed, we expect the depository to determine the amount of the interest of each participant in such debt securities to be redeemed to be determined by lot. Neither we, the trustee, any paying agent nor the security registrar for such debt securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security for such debt securities or for maintaining any records with respect thereto.

        Neither we nor the trustee will be liable for any delay by the holders of a global security or the depository in identifying the beneficial owners of debt securities, and we and the trustee may conclusively rely on, and will be protected in relying on, instructions from the holder of a global security or the depository for all purposes. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

        If a depository for any debt securities is at any time unwilling, unable or ineligible to continue as depository and we do not appoint a successor depository within 90 days, we will issue individual debt securities in exchange for the global security representing such debt securities. In addition, we may at any time and at our sole discretion, subject to any limitations described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities, determine not to have any of such debt securities represented by one or more global securities and in such event will issue individual debt securities in exchange for the global security or securities representing such debt securities. Individual debt securities so issued will be issued in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.

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        The debt securities of a series may also be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more bearer global securities that will be deposited with a depository, or with a nominee for such depository, identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any such bearer global securities may be issued in temporary or permanent form. The specific terms and procedures, including the specific terms of the depositary arrangement, with respect to any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by one or more bearer global securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No Recourse

        There is no recourse under any obligation, covenant or agreement in the applicable indenture or with respect to any security against any of our or our successor's past, present or future shareholders, employees, officers or directors.

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

        The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.

General

        We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.

        We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate warrant agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

        We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

        We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section outlines certain provisions of the units that we may issue. If we issue units, they will be issued under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. The information described in this section may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement and unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, forms of unit agreements and unit certificates relating to such units will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.

        Each unit that we may issue will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

        The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under "Description of Capital Stock," "Description of Debt Securities" and "Description of Warrants" will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.

Issuance in Series

        We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section summarizes terms of the units that apply generally to all series. Most of the financial and other specific terms of your series will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unit Agreements

        We will issue the units under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We may add, replace or terminate unit agents from time to time. We will identify the unit agreement under which each series of units will be issued and the unit agent under that agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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        The following provisions will generally apply to all unit agreements unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement:

Modification without Consent

        We and the applicable unit agent may amend any unit or unit agreement without the consent of any holder:

        We do not need any approval to make changes that affect only units to be issued after the changes take effect. We may also make changes that do not adversely affect a particular unit in any material respect, even if they adversely affect other units in a material respect. In those cases, we do not need to obtain the approval of the holder of the unaffected unit; we need only obtain any required approvals from the holders of the affected units.

Modification with Consent

        We may not amend any particular unit or a unit agreement with respect to any particular unit unless we obtain the consent of the holder of that unit, if the amendment would:

        Any other change to a particular unit agreement and the units issued under that agreement would require the following approval:

        These provisions regarding changes with majority approval also apply to changes affecting any securities issued under a unit agreement, as the governing document.

        In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.

Unit Agreements Will Not Be Qualified under Trust Indenture Act

        No unit agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no unit agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of units issued under unit agreements will not have the protections of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their units.

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Mergers and Similar Transactions Permitted; No Restrictive Covenants or Events of Default

        The unit agreements will not restrict our ability to merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets to, another corporation or other entity or to engage in any other transactions. If at any time we merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets substantially as an entirety to, another corporation or other entity, the successor entity will succeed to and assume our obligations under the unit agreements. We will then be relieved of any further obligation under these agreements.

        The unit agreements will not include any restrictions on our ability to put liens on our assets, nor will they restrict our ability to sell our assets. The unit agreements also will not provide for any events of default or remedies upon the occurrence of any events of default.

Governing Law

        The unit agreements and the units will be governed by Delaware law.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

        Unless the accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, we will issue each unit in global—i.e., book-entry—form only. Units in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the units represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a unit will do so through participants in the depositary's system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We will describe book-entry securities, and other terms regarding the issuance and registration of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        Unless the accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, each unit and all securities comprising the unit will be issued in the same form.

        If we issue any units in registered, non-global form, the following will apply to them.

        The units will be issued in the denominations stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders may exchange their units for units of smaller denominations or combined into fewer units of larger denominations, as long as the total amount is not changed.

        Only the depositary will be entitled to transfer or exchange a unit in global form, since it will be the sole holder of the unit.

Payments and Notices

        In making payments and giving notices with respect to our units, we will follow the procedures as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

        We may sell securities:

        In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders.

        We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

        Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

        The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

        If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

        In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the

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accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.

        If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an "underwriter" as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

        If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

        Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

        If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

        Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.

        Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

        In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition,

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to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

        We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

        Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

        The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

        The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

        The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.

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LEGAL MATTERS

        Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

        Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP's report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

        We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents also may be accessed through the SEC's electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC's home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).

        We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. See "Description of Capital Stock." We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock which has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any shareholder upon request and without charge. Written requests for such copies should be directed to Investor Relations, Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139. Our website is located at http://www.scholarrock.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, therefore, is not part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

        The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of the filing of this registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, until we sell all of the securities:

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        Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing us at the following address: Investor Relations, Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139.

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

        You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

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$275,000,000

GRAPHIC

Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units



PROSPECTUS



                        , 2019

        We have not authorized any dealer, salesperson or other person to give any information or represent anything not contained in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not offer to sell any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful. Neither the delivery of this prospectus, nor any sale made hereunder, shall create any implication that the information in this prospectus is correct after the date hereof.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)   Dated June 3, 2019



Scholar Rock Holding Corporation

LOGO

Up to $75,000,000

Common Stock



        We have entered into a certain Open Market Sale AgreementSM, or sales agreement, with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000 from time to time through Jefferies, acting as our agent.

        Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SRRK." On May 30, 2019, the closing price of our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $18.77 per share.

        Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be "at the market offerings" as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Jefferies is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Jefferies and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

        The compensation to Jefferies for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an "underwriter" within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Jefferies with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. See the section titled "Plan of Distribution" on page S-14 of this prospectus.

        Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading "Risk Factors" on page S-7 of this prospectus and in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

        Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.



Jefferies

   

June     , 2019


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page  

About this Prospectus

    S-1  

Prospectus Summary

    S-2  

Risk Factors

    S-7  

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

    S-9  

Use of Proceeds

    S-11  

Dilution

    S-12  

Plan of Distribution

    S-14  

Legal Matters

    S-16  

Experts

    S-16  

Where You Can Find More Information

    S-16  

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

    S-16  

        We are responsible for the information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, in any accompanying prospectus, and in any related free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize. We have not authorized anyone to give you any other information, and we take no responsibility for any other information that others may give you. If you are in a jurisdiction where offers to sell, or solicitations of offers to purchase, the securities offered by this documentation are unlawful, or if you are a person to whom it is unlawful to direct these types of activities, then the offer presented in this document does not extend to you. The information contained in this document speaks only as of the date of this document, unless the information specifically indicates that another date applies. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

        This prospectus relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings "Where You Can Find More Information" and "Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference" in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

        This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

        We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information in addition to or different from that contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurances as to the reliability of, any information not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.

        This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading "Where You Can Find More Information".

        Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to "Scholar Rock", "we", "our", "us" and "the Company" refer, collectively, to Scholar Rock Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries.

        We own various U.S. federal trademark applications and unregistered trademarks, including "Scholar Rock" and our corporate logo. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and ™, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies' trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading "Risk Factors" in this prospectus on page S-7 and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Company Overview

        We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of innovative medicines for the treatment of serious diseases in which signaling by protein growth factors plays a fundamental role. Our novel understanding of the molecular mechanisms of growth factor activation enabled us to develop a proprietary platform for the discovery and development of monoclonal antibodies that locally and selectively target these signaling proteins at the cellular level. We believe this approach, acting in the disease microenvironment, avoids the historical challenges associated with inhibiting growth factors for therapeutic effect. We believe our focus on biologically validated growth factors may facilitate a more efficient development path. Our lead product candidate, SRK-015, is a highly selective, fully human, monoclonal antibody, with a unique mechanism of action that results in inhibition of the activation of the growth factor, myostatin, in skeletal muscle. We have advanced SRK-015 as a potential first muscle-directed therapy for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy ("SMA") into clinical development. In May 2018, we initiated our Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-015 in healthy volunteers and in February 2019, we announced favorable interim safety and tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetic date, which supported the advancement of SRK-015 to a Phase 2 clinical trial. We commenced patient dosing for our Phase 2 clinical trial in SMA in April 2019. Our second product candidate, SRK-181, is being developed for the treatment of cancers resistant to checkpoint blockade therapies ("CBTs") such as anti-PD1 or anti-PDL 1 antibodies. SRK-181 is a highly selective inhibitor of the activation of transforming growth factor beta-1 ("TGFb1"). We intend to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-181 in cancer immunotherapy in mid-2020. In addition, utilizing our proprietary platform, we are continuing to create a pipeline of novel product candidates with the potential to transform the lives of patients suffering from a wide range of serious diseases, including other neuromuscular disorders, cancer, fibrosis and anemia.

        Our proprietary platform is designed to discover and develop monoclonal antibodies that have a high degree of specificity to achieve selective modulation of growth factor signaling. Growth factors are naturally occurring proteins that typically act as signaling molecules between cells and play a fundamental role in regulating a variety of normal cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation. Current therapeutic approaches to treating diseases in which growth factors play a fundamental role involve directly targeting an active growth factor or its receptor systemically throughout the body and have suffered from a variety of shortcomings:

    multiple growth factors often signal through the same or overlapping sets of related receptors, making it difficult to specifically modulate one pathway over another;

    members of the same growth factor superfamily share considerable structural similarities, making it difficult to achieve specific inhibition of the targeted growth factor; this can result in broad systemic inhibition that can cause undesirable, and in many cases toxic, side effects; and

    systemic and non-selective inhibition of a growth factor can block the growth factor's role in the disease process, but can also simultaneously interfere with its other normal physiological roles.

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        Our innovative approach is rooted in our structural biology insights into the mechanism by which certain growth factors are activated in close proximity to the cell surface. We integrate these insights with sophisticated protein expression, assay development and monoclonal antibody discovery capabilities. We believe our proprietary platform can address the challenges of current therapeutic approaches to treating diseases in which growth factors play a fundamental role by:

    targeting the natural activation mechanism to prevent activation of the growth factor rather than attempting to inhibit the growth factor after activation;

    achieving heightened specificity for the targeted growth factor while minimizing interactions with structurally similar and related growth factors, thereby reducing the risk of unintended systemic adverse events; and

    targeting the disease microenvironment, where we believe we can interfere with the disease process while minimizing the effects on the normal physiological processes mediated by the same growth factors.

        We have advanced our lead antibody product candidate, SRK-015, a novel, highly selective inhibitor of the activation of myostatin, into clinical development for the treatment of SMA. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass expressed primarily in skeletal muscle tissue, and a member of the transforming growth factor beta, or TGFb, superfamily, a group of more than 30 related growth factors that mediate diverse biological processes. Vertebrate animals that lack the myostatin gene display increased muscle mass and strength relative to their normal counterparts, but are otherwise healthy. We believe selective inhibition of myostatin activation may promote a clinically meaningful increase in motor function. As a result, we have focused our initial development efforts for SRK-015 on the treatment of SMA. SMA is a rare, and often fatal, genetic disorder arising from a deficiency of a protein known as "survival of motor neuron," or SMN. This disease typically manifests in young children and is characterized by atrophy of the voluntary muscles of the limbs and trunk and dramatically reduced normal neuromuscular function. An estimated 30,000 to 35,000 patients suffer from SMA in the United States and Europe alone. In preclinical studies, we observed that SRK-015 promoted increased muscle mass and strength, and in vitro studies have shown that the antibody selectively avoids interaction with other closely related growth factors that play distinctly different physiological roles. We believe that SRK-015 has the potential to be the first muscle-directed therapy to improve motor function in patients with SMA and could be used both as a monotherapy or in conjunction with SMN upregulator therapies (i.e., therapies that upregulate the expression of SMN, such as SMN splicing modulators or gene therapy). In May 2018, we initiated our Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-015 in healthy volunteers and in February 2019, we announced favorable interim safety and tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetic data, which supported the advancement of SRK-015 to a Phase 2 clinical trial. We commenced patient dosing for our Phase 2 clinical trial in SMA in April 2019.

        Our second antibody program is focused on the discovery and development of highly specific inhibitors of the activation of TGFb1. TGFb1 is also a member of the TGFb superfamily, and increased signaling by TGFb1 is a key driver of a number of disease-relevant processes, including tissue and organ fibrosis, immune system evasion by cancer cells, and bone marrow fibrosis associated with hematological disorders. Historically, selectively targeting TGFb1 signaling has been challenging due to the inability of both small molecule inhibitors and antibodies to avoid off-target inhibition of other, closely related growth factors, TGFb2 and TGFb3. Treatment of animals with these pan-TGFb inhibitors has been associated with a range of toxicities, most notably cardiac toxicity. In preclinical studies of our antibodies, we have observed specific inhibition of TGFb1 activation in vitro and immunomodulatory and antifibrotic activity in multiple disease models in vivo. In addition, we have completed a 28-day pilot nonclinical toxicology study in rats of our leading antibody and we did not observe any drug-related toxicity up to the highest doses tested in the study. In the same study, we

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tested pan-TGFb inhibitors and observed the toxicities, including cardiac toxicity, that have been observed by others. Based on this program, in December 2018, we announced a major collaboration with Gilead Sciences, Inc., or Gilead, in the area of discovering, developing, and commercializing treatments for fibrotic diseases using highly specific inhibitors of the activation of TGFb. We retained exclusive worldwide rights to discover, develop, and commercialize certain TGFb1 inhibitors for oncology and cancer immunotherapy. In March 2019, we nominated SRK-181 as a product candidate for the treatment of cancers that are resistant to CBTs and intend to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial of SRK-181 in cancer immunotherapy in mid-2020.

        Our third antibody program targets the signaling of bone morphogenetic protein 6, or BMP6, another member of the TGFb superfamily, which is involved in a diverse set of biological processes in various parts of the body. For example, in the liver, BMP6 signaling is a key controller of the body's ability to regulate iron levels. Given BMP6's important role in iron metabolism, we believe that targeting BMP6 signaling in a liver-selective fashion presents the potential to address both iron-restricted anemias and iron overload conditions. In preclinical studies of our antibodies that target BMP6 signaling in the liver, we have observed increased serum iron levels in healthy animals and we are now evaluating a limited number of these antibodies in disease models of iron-restricted anemia.

        We have worldwide rights to our proprietary platform and all of our product candidates and antibodies with the exception of those that are subject to our collaboration with Gilead and certain early-stage antibodies that specifically inhibit the activation of TGFb1 in the context of regulatory T cells, which we licensed to Janssen Biotech, Inc., or Janssen, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson in December 2013.

Company Information

        We were incorporated in 2017 under the laws of the state of Delaware as the holding company for Scholar Rock, Inc. Scholar Rock, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Scholar Rock, LLC. On December 22, 2017, we completed a series of transactions pursuant to which Scholar Rock Merger Sub, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, was merged with and into Scholar Rock, LLC (the "Reorganization"). The purpose of the Reorganization was to reorganize our corporate structure so that we would continue as a corporation and so that our investors prior to the Reorganization would own our capital stock after the Reorganization rather than equity interests in a limited liability company. All of our convertible preferred stock converted into shares of common stock upon the completion of our initial public offering, or IPO, at the then effective conversion ratio.

        In May 2018, we completed our IPO of our common stock, and issued and sold 6,164,000 shares of common stock, including all additional shares available to cover over-allotments, at a public offering price of $14.00 per share, resulting in net proceeds of $77.8 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses payable by us. Upon the closing of the IPO, all outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock converted into 15,109,950 shares of common stock. Our Board and stockholders approved a 2.8548-to-one reverse stock split of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock that became effective on May 11, 2018.

        Our principal executive offices are located at 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, and our phone number is (857) 259-3860. Our website address is http://www.scholarrock.com. The information contained in or accessible from our website is not incorporated into this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

        As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our most recently completed fiscal year, we qualify as an "emerging growth company" as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of

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2012, or the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable, in general, to public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These provisions include:

    reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements;

    exemption from the non-binding stockholder advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements;

    exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting; and

    reduced disclosure of financial information in this prospectus, such as being permitted to include only two years of audited financial information and two years of selected financial information in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" disclosure.

        We may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues as of the end of a fiscal year, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates as of any December 31 before that time or if we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year-period. We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available exemptions.

        The JOBS Act permits an emerging growth company to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies

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THE OFFERING

Common stock offered by us

  Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000.

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

 

Up to 30,213,184 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 3,995,737 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $18.77 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on May 30, 2019. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

Plan of Distribution

 

"At the market offering" that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies. See "Plan of Distribution" on page S-14 of this prospectus.

Use of Proceeds

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, and capital expenditures. See "Use of Proceeds" on page S-11 of this prospectus.

Risk Factors

 

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See "Risk Factors" on page S-7 of this prospectus and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

The Nasdaq Global Select Market Symbol

 

"SRRK"

        The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding immediately after this offering as shown above is based on 26,217,447 shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019. The number of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019 as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

    983,843 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2019 under our 2017 Stock Option and Incentive Plan at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.28 per share;

    1,288,027 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2019 under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan at a weighted-average exercise price of $16.43 per share;

    7,614 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of a warrant outstanding as of March 31, 2019, at an exercise price of $3.94 per share;

    2,939,451 shares of common stock reserved for the future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan as of March 31, 2019; and

    497,920 shares of our common stock available for future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of March 31, 2019.

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RISK FACTORS

        Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, (ii) our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019 which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus and other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Additional Risks Related To This Offering

We have broad discretion in the use of our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

        Our management will have broad discretion in the application of our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled "Use of Proceeds," and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether such proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of our existing cash and cash equivalents and the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our existing cash and cash equivalents and the net proceeds from this offering in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

You will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

        The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 3,995,737 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $18.77 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on May 30, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $75 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $13.15 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants will result in further dilution of your investment. See the section titled "Dilution" below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

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You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

        In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to those of existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as "anticipate," "believe," "contemplate," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "plan," "potential," "predict," "project," "seek," "should," "target," "will," "would," and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section "Risk Factors."

        This prospectus, including the sections entitled "About this Prospectus" and "Risk Factors," contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management's belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

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        These forward-looking statements are neither promises nor guarantees of future performance due to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by these forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the risks more fully discussed in the "Risk Factors" section in this prospectus, and the risk factors and cautionary statements described in other documents that we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically under "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and elsewhere in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2018 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, as updated by our subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

        Given these uncertainties, readers should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which the statements were made and are not guarantees of future performance. Except as may be required by applicable law, we do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus or the respective dates of documents incorporated by reference herein or therein that include forward-looking statements.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $75,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

        We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

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DILUTION

        Purchasers of common stock offered by this prospectus will suffer immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of common stock. Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 was approximately $97.5 million, or approximately $3.72 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets) less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019.

        Dilution in net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers in this offering and the net tangible book value (deficit) per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. After giving effect to the assumed sale of shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $75,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $18.77 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on May 30, 2019, and after deduction of commissions and offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 would have been approximately $169.9 million, or $5.62 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $1.90 per share of common stock to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $13.15 per share of common stock to investors participating in this offering at an assumed offering price of $18.77 per share.

        The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

Assumed offering price per share

        $ 18.77  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019

  $ 3.72        

Increase in per share attributable to new investors attributable to this offering

  $ 1.90        

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019, after giving effect to this offering

        $ 5.62  

Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering

        $ 13.15  

        The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 3,995,737 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $18.77 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on May 30, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $75,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $18.77 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $75,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an increase to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $5.66 and an increase in the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $14.11, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $18.77 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $75,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in a decrease to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $5.58 and a decrease in the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $12.19, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only, and will adjust based on the actual offering prices, the actual number of shares that we offer and sell in this offering and other terms of each sale of shares in this offering.

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        The information above and in the foregoing table is based upon 26,217,447 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019. The information above and in the foregoing table excludes as of March 31, 2019:

        In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital in the future through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that any of our outstanding options are exercised, new options are issued under our equity incentive plans or we issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or convertible debt securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

        We have entered into a sales agreement with Jefferies, under which we may offer and sell up to $75,000,000 of our shares of common stock from time to time through Jefferies acting as agent. Sales of our shares of common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made by any method that is deemed to be an "at the market offering" as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

        Each time we wish to issue and sell shares of common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify Jefferies of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any limitation on the number of shares to be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Once we have so instructed Jefferies, unless Jefferies declines to accept the terms of such notice, Jefferies has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Jefferies under the sales agreement to sell our shares of common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

        The settlement of sales of shares between us and Jefferies is generally anticipated to occur on the second trading day following the date on which the sale was made. Sales of our shares of common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Jefferies may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

        We will pay Jefferies a commission equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds we receive from each sale of our shares of common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse Jefferies for the fees and disbursements of its counsel, payable upon execution of the sales agreement, in an amount not to exceed $50,000, in addition to certain ongoing disbursements of its legal counsel. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding any commissions or expense reimbursement payable to Jefferies under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $0.4 million. The remaining sale proceeds, after deducting any other transaction fees, will equal our net proceeds from the sale of such shares.

        Jefferies will provide written confirmation to us before the open on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on the day following each day on which shares of common stock are sold under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on that day, the aggregate gross proceeds of such sales and the proceeds to us.

        In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an "underwriter" within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify Jefferies against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We have also agreed to contribute to payments Jefferies may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.

        The offering of our shares of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all shares of common stock subject to the sales agreement and (ii) the termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein. We and Jefferies may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten days' prior notice.

        This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the sales agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part.

        Jefferies and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they

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may in the future receive customary fees. In the course of its business, Jefferies may actively trade our securities for its own account or for the accounts of customers, and, accordingly, Jefferies may at any time hold long or short positions in such securities.

        A prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Jefferies, and Jefferies may distribute the prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus electronically.

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LEGAL MATTERS

        Certain legal matters, including the legality of the securities offered, will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Jefferies LLC is being represented in this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.


EXPERTS

        Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP's report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.


WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. Certain information in the registration statement has been omitted from this prospectus in accordance with the rules of the SEC. We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents also may be accessed through the SEC's electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC's home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov). You may also inspect the registration statement and this prospectus on this website.

        We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock which has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any shareholder upon request and without charge. Written requests for such copies should be directed Investor Relations, Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139. Our website is located at http://www.scholarrock.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and, except for the documents incorporated by reference as noted below, you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed from, our website as part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.


INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

        The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file after the date hereof with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering:

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        Pursuant to Rule 412 under the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

        Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing us at the following address: Investor Relations, Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139. Our website is located at http://www.scholarrock.com. The reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference and, except for the documents incorporated by reference as noted above, the information on, or accessible through, our website is not intended to be part of this prospectus.

        You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

        We advise that there have been no material changes in our affairs that have occurred since the end of the latest fiscal period for which audited financial statements were included in the latest Form 10-K and that have not been described in a Form 10-Q or Form 8-K filed under the Exchange Act.

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

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LOGO

Up to $75,000,000
Common Stock



PROSPECTUS



Jefferies



June     , 2019

   


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Part II—INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14.    Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

        The expenses payable by Scholar Rock Holding Corporation (the "Registrant" or the "Company") in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered (other than underwriting discounts and commissions, if any) are set forth below. Each item listed is estimated, except for the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") registration fee.

Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee

  $ 33,330  

FINRA filing fee

  $ 41,750  

Legal fees and expenses

      *

Accounting fees and expenses

      *

Printing fees and expenses

      *

Transfer agent and trustee fees

      *

Miscellaneous

      *

Total

  $   *

*
Estimated expenses not presently known

Item 15.    Indemnification of Directors and Officers

        Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, authorizes a corporation to indemnify its directors and officers against liabilities arising out of actions, suits and proceedings to which they are made or threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that they have served or are currently serving as a director or officer to a corporation. The indemnity may cover expenses (including attorneys' fees) judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the director or officer in connection with any such action, suit or proceeding. Section 145 permits corporations to pay expenses (including attorneys' fees) incurred by directors and officers in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding. In addition, Section 145 provides that a corporation has the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of its directors and officers against any liability asserted against them and incurred by them in their capacity as a director or officer, or arising out of their status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the director or officer against such liability under Section 145.

        We have adopted provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that limit or eliminate the personal liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended. Consequently, a director will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages or breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:

        These limitations of liability do not alter director liability under the federal securities laws and do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as an injunction or rescission.

        In addition, our bylaws provide that:


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        We have entered, and intend to continue to enter, into separate indemnification agreements with our directors, officers and certain of our key employees, in addition to the indemnification provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws. These agreements, among other things, require us to indemnify our directors, officers and key employees for certain expenses, including attorneys' fees, judgments, penalties, fines and settlement amounts actually incurred by these individuals in any action or proceeding arising out of their service to us or any of our subsidiaries or any other company or enterprise to which these individuals provide services at our request. Subject to certain limitations, our indemnification agreements also require us to advance expenses incurred by our directors, officers and key employees for the defense of any action for which indemnification is required or permitted.

        We also maintain general liability insurance which covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

        The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breach of their fiduciary duty. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against our directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and other stockholders. Further, a stockholder's investment may be adversely affected to the extent that we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers as required by these indemnification provisions.

Item 16.    Exhibits

        A list of exhibits filed with this registration statement on Form S-3 is set forth on the Exhibit Index and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 17.    Undertakings

        The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:


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EXHIBIT INDEX

Exhibit No.   Description
  1.1 * Form of Underwriting Agreement

 

1.2

 

Open Market Sale AgreementSM dated June 3, 2019 by and between the Company and Jefferies LLC

 

3.1

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Scholar Rock Holding Corporation (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant's Form S-1/A filed on May 8, 2018)

 

3.2

 

Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Scholar Rock Holding Corporation (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1.1 to the Registrant's Form S-1/A filed on May 14, 2018)

 

3.3

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of Scholar Rock Holding Corporation (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 to the Registrant's Form S-1/A filed on May 8, 2018)

 

4.1

 

Specimen Stock Certificate evidencing shares of common stock (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant's Form S-1/A filed on May 14, 2018)

 

4.2

 

Investors' Rights Agreement among Scholar Rock Holding Corporation and certain of its stockholders, dated December 22, 2017 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant's Form S-1 filed on April 27, 2018)

 

4.3

 

Amended and Restated Warrant to Purchase Stock, by and between Silicon Valley Bank and Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, dated December 22, 2017 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 to the Registrant's Form S-1 filed on April 27, 2018)

 

4.4

 

Registration Rights Agreement, by and among Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, Gilead Sciences, Inc. and certain of the Registrant's stockholders named therein (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 to the Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed on December 24, 2018)

 

4.5

 

Form of indenture for senior debt securities and the related form of senior debt security

 

4.6

 

Form of indenture for subordinated debt securities and the related form of subordinated debt security

 

4.7

*

Form of Certificate of Designations

 

4.8

*

Form of Warrant Agreements

 

4.9

*

Form of Unit Certificate

 

4.10

*

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate

 

5.1

 

Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP

 

5.2

 

Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP

 

23.1

 

Consent of Ernst & Young LLP

 

23.2

 

Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1 hereto)

 

24.1

 

Power of Attorney (included on the signature pages to this registration statement)

 

25.1

**

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

 

25.2

**

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

*
To be filed if necessary by amendment or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this registration statement, including a Current Report on Form 8-K.

**
To be filed by amendment pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

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SIGNATURES

        Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, on this third day of June, 2019.

    SCHOLAR ROCK HOLDING CORPORATION

 

 

By:

 

/s/ NAGESH K. MAHANTHAPPA

Nagesh K. Mahanthappa, Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer

        KNOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby severally constitutes and appoints each of Nagesh K. Mahanthappa, Ph.D. and Rhonda M. Chicko, C.P.A., and each of them singly, as such person's true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person and in such person's name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including, without limitation, post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto each said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that any said attorney-in-fact and agent, or any substitute or substitutes of any of them, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

        Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

Signature
 
Title
 
Date

 

 

 

 

 
/s/ NAGESH K. MAHANTHAPPA

Nagesh K. Mahanthappa, Ph.D., MBA
  President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)   June 3, 2019

/s/ RHONDA M. CHICKO

Rhonda M. Chicko

 

Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

June 3, 2019

/s/ DAVID HALLAL

David Hallal

 

Director

 

June 3, 2019

/s/ KRISTINA BUROW

Kristina Burow

 

Director

 

June 3, 2019

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Signature
 
Title
 
Date

 

 

 

 

 
/s/ JEFFREY S. FLIER

Jeffrey S. Flier, M.D.
  Director   June 3, 2019

/s/ MICHAEL GILMAN

Michael Gilman, Ph.D.

 

Director

 

June 3, 2019

/s/ EDWARD MYLES

Edward Myles, MBA

 

Director

 

June 3, 2019

/s/ AMIR NASHAT

Amir Nashat, Sc.D.

 

Director

 

June 3, 2019

/s/ AKSHAY VAISHNAW

Akshay Vaishnaw M.D., Ph.D.

 

Director

 

June 3, 2019



Exhibit 1.2

OPEN MARKET SALE AGREEMENTSM

 

June 3, 2019

 

JEFFERIES LLC
520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Scholar Rock Holding Corporation, a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein, to issue and sell from time to time through Jefferies LLC, as sales agent and/or principal (the “Agent”), shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Shares”), having an aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 on the terms set forth in this agreement (this “Agreement”).

 

Section 1.  DEFINITIONS

 

(a)                                 Certain Definitions.  For purposes of this Agreement, capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined shall have the following respective meanings:

 

Affiliate” of a Person means another Person that directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such first- mentioned Person. The term “control” (including the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”) means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

 

Agency Period” means the period commencing on the date of this Agreement and expiring on the earliest to occur of (x) the date on which the Agent shall have placed the Maximum Program Amount pursuant to this Agreement and (y) the date this Agreement is terminated pursuant to Section 7.

 

Commission” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

Floor Price” means the minimum price set by the Company in the Issuance Notice below which the Agent shall not sell Shares during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice, which may be adjusted by the Company at any time during the period set forth in the Issuance Notice by delivering written notice of such change to the Agent and which in no event shall be less

 


SM “Open Market Sale Agreement” is a service mark of Jefferies LLC

 


 

than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion.

 

Issuance Amount” means the aggregate Sales Price of the Shares to be sold by the Agent pursuant to any Issuance Notice.

 

Issuance Notice” means a written notice delivered to the Agent by the Company in accordance with this Agreement in the form attached hereto as Exhibit A that is executed by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer.

 

Issuance Notice Date” means any Trading Day during the Agency Period that an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

 

Issuance Price” means the Sales Price less the Selling Commission.

 

Maximum Program Amount” means Common Shares with an aggregate Sales Price of the lesser of (a) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares registered under the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) the number of authorized but unissued Common Shares (less Common Shares issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable), or (d) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares for which the Company has filed a Prospectus (defined below).

 

Person” means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or other entity of any kind.

 

Principal Market” means the Nasdaq Global Market or such other national securities exchange on which the Common Shares, including any Shares, are then listed.

 

Sales Price” means the actual sale execution price of each Share placed by the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

Selling Commission” means three percent (3.0%) of the gross proceeds of Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement, or as otherwise agreed between the Company and the Agent with respect to any Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement.

 

Settlement Date” means the second business day following each Trading Day during the period set forth in the Issuance Notice on which Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement, when the Company shall deliver to the Agent the amount of Shares sold on such Trading Day and the Agent shall deliver to the Company the Issuance Price received on such sales.

 

2


 

Shares” shall mean the Company’s Common Shares issued or issuable pursuant to this Agreement.

 

Trading Day” means any day on which the Principal Market is open for trading.

 

Section 2.  REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF THE COMPANY

 

The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that, unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies otherwise, as of (1) the date of this Agreement, (2) each Issuance Notice Date, (3) each Settlement Date, (4) each Triggering Event Date and (5) as of each Time of Sale (each of the times referenced above is referred to herein as a “Representation Date”), except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto) on or before a Representation Date:

 

(a)                                 Registration Statement.  The Company has prepared and has filed or will file with the Commission a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that contains a base prospectus (the “Base Prospectus”).  Such registration statement registers the issuance and sale by the Company of the Shares under the Securities Act.  The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable, with respect to the Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, including all financial statements, exhibits and schedules thereto and all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act as from time to time amended or supplemented, is herein referred to as the “Registration Statement,” and the prospectus constituting a part of such registration statement(s), together with any prospectus supplement filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act relating to a particular issuance of the Shares, including all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, in each case, as from time to time amended or supplemented, is referred to herein as the “Prospectus,” except that if any revised prospectus is provided to the Agent by the Company for use in connection with the offering of the Shares that is not required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, the term “Prospectus” shall refer to such revised prospectus from and after the time it is first provided to the Agent for such use.  The Registration Statement at the time it originally became effective is herein called the “Original Registration Statement.”  As used in this Agreement, the terms “amendment” or “supplement” when applied to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to include the filing by the Company with the Commission of any document under the Exchange Act after the date hereof that is or is deemed to be incorporated therein by reference.

 

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date; and all references in this Agreement to amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to

 

3


 

mean and include, without limitation, the filing of any document under the Exchange Act which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date.

 

At the time the Original Registration Statement was or will be declared effective and at the time the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, if later, the Company met the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.  During the Agency Period, each time the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K the Company will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

(b)                                 Compliance with Registration Requirements.  The Original Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act.  The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information.  No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, are contemplated or threatened by the Commission.

 

The Prospectus when filed complied or will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and, if filed with the Commission through its Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system (“EDGAR”) (except as may be permitted by Regulation S-T under the Securities Act), was identical to the copy thereof delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares.  Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective and at each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.  As of the date of this Agreement, the Prospectus and any Free Writing Prospectus considered together (collectively, the “Time of Sale Information”) did not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date and at each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The representations and warranties set forth in the three immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information described in Section 6  below.  There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said rule.

 

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(c)                                  Ineligible Issuer Status. The Company is not an “ineligible issuer” in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to Rules 164, 405 and 433 under the Securities Act.  Any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company is required to file pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act has been, or will be, filed with the Commission in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Act.  Each Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used or referred to by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of Rule 433 under the Securities Act including timely filing with the Commission or retention where required and legending, and each such Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and at all subsequent times through the completion of the issuance and sale of the Shares did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts with or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any document incorporated by reference therein.  Except for the Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, and electronic road shows, if any, furnished to the Agent before first use, the Company has not prepared, used or referred to, and will not, without the Agent’s prior consent, prepare, use or refer to, any Free Writing Prospectus.

 

(d)                                 Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, at the time they were filed with the Commission, complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, do not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(e)                                  Exchange Act Compliance.  The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, and any Free Writing Prospectus or amendment or supplement thereto complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the time the Registration Statement and any amendments thereto become effective and as of each Representation Date, as the case may be, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(f)                                   The Agreement.  This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.

 

(g)                                  Authorization of the Shares.  The Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable,

 

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and the issuance and sale of the Shares is not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Shares.

 

(h)                                 No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights.  There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

 

(i)                                     No Material Adverse Change.  Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity (any such change being referred to herein as a “Material Adverse Change”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, have not incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, including without limitation any losses or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood, earthquakes, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any strike, labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree, that are material, individually or in the aggregate, to the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, or has entered into any transactions not in the ordinary course of business; and (iii) there has not been any material decrease in the capital stock or any material increase in any short-term or long-term indebtedness of the Company or its subsidiaries and there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for dividends paid to the Company or other subsidiaries, by any of the Company’s subsidiaries on any class of capital stock, or any repurchase or redemption by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any class of capital stock.

 

(j)                                    Independent Accountants.  Ernst & Young LLP, which has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements (which term as used in this Agreement includes the related notes thereto) filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is (i) an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”), and the rules of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), (ii) in compliance with the applicable requirements relating to the qualification of accountants under Rule 2-01 of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act and (iii) a registered public accounting firm as defined by the PCAOB whose registration has not been suspended or revoked and who has not requested such registration to be withdrawn.

 

(k)                                 Financial Statements.  The financial statements filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations, changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the periods specified.  Such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”), applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved, except as may be expressly stated in the related notes thereto and except in the case of unaudited financial statements, which are subject to normal and recurring

 

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year-end adjustments and do not contain all footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission.  No other financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.  The financial data set forth in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the captions “Capitalization” and “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” fairly present, in all material respects, the information set forth therein on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements contained in the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and any free writing prospectus, that constitute non-GAAP financial measures (as defined by the rules and regulations under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act) comply with Regulation G under the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, as applicable. To the Company’s knowledge, no person who has been suspended or barred from being associated with a registered public accounting firm, or who has failed to comply with any sanction pursuant to Rule 5300 promulgated by the PCAOB, has participated in or otherwise aided the preparation of, or audited, the financial statements, supporting schedules or other financial data filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(l)                                     Company’s Accounting System.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries make and keep accurate books and records and maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that:  (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.

 

(m)                             Disclosure Controls and Procedures; Deficiencies in or Changes to Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company has established and maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act), which (i) are designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others within those entities, particularly during the periods in which the periodic reports required under the Exchange Act are being prepared; (ii) have been evaluated by management of the Company for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s most recent fiscal quarter; and (iii) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established. Since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there have been no significant deficiencies or material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.  The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

(n)                                 Incorporation and Good Standing of the Company.  The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware and has the corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and

 

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to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement.  The Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, or to have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect (defined below).

 

(o)                                 Subsidiaries.  Each of the Company’s “subsidiaries” (for purposes of this Agreement, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) has been duly incorporated or organized, as the case may be, and is validly existing and in good standing (where such concept is recognized) under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization and has the power and authority (corporate or other) to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.  Each of the Company’s subsidiaries is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing (where such concept is recognized) in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  All of the issued and outstanding capital stock or other equity or ownership interests of each of the Company’s subsidiaries have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and are owned by the Company, directly or through subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim.  The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21 to the Registration Statement.

 

(p)                                 Capitalization and Other Capital Stock Matters.  The authorized, issued and outstanding capital stock of the Company is as set forth in the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus under the caption “Capitalization” (other than for subsequent issuances, if any, pursuant to employee benefit plans, or upon the exercise of outstanding options or warrants, in each case described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus).  The Common Shares (including the Shares, when issued pursuant to the terms of this Agreement) conform, in all material respects, to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus.  All of the issued and outstanding Shares have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and have been issued in compliance with all applicable federal and state securities laws.  None of the outstanding Shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company.  There are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company or any of its subsidiaries other than those described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.  The descriptions of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus accurately and fairly presents, in all material respects, the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

 

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(q)                                 Stock Exchange Listing.  The Common Shares are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and are listed on the Principal Market and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Shares under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Shares from the Principal Market, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Principal Market is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

 

(r)                                    Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of its charter or by-laws, partnership agreement or operating agreement or similar organizational documents, as applicable, or is in default (or, with the giving of notice or lapse of time, would be in default) (“Default”) under any indenture, loan, credit agreement, note, lease, license agreement, contract, franchise or other instrument (including, without limitation, any pledge agreement, security agreement, mortgage or other instrument or agreement evidencing, guaranteeing, securing or relating to indebtedness) to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which it or any of them may be bound, or to which any of their respective properties or assets are subject (each, an “Existing Instrument”), except for such Defaults as could not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on the condition (financial or other), earnings, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity (a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the issuance and sale of the Shares (including the use of proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) (i) have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and will not result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws, partnership agreement or operating agreement or similar organizational documents, as applicable, of the Company or any subsidiary (ii) will not conflict with or constitute a breach of, or Default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, or require the consent of any other party to, any Existing Instrument, except as could not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect and (iii) will not result in any violation of any law, administrative regulation or administrative or court decree applicable to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, except for such violations as would not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.  No consent, approval, authorization or other order of, or registration or filing with, any court or other governmental or regulatory authority or agency, is required for the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except such as have been obtained or made or will be made by the Company under the Securities Act and such as may be required under applicable state securities or blue sky laws or the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).  As used herein, a “Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition which gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give, the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company or any of its subsidiaries.

 

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(s)                                   Compliance with Laws.  The Company and its subsidiaries have been and are in compliance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations, except where failure to be so in compliance could not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(t)                                    No Material Actions or Proceedings.  There is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation brought by or before any governmental entity now pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries, which if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries would reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect or materially and adversely affect the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder; and the aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any such subsidiary is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, if determined adversely to the Company, would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.  No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened or imminent.  To the knowledge of the Company, no material labor dispute with the employees of any principal supplier, manufacturer, customer or contractor of the Company, exists, or is threatened or imminent.

 

(u)                                 Intellectual Property Rights.  The Company and its subsidiaries own, or have obtained valid and enforceable licenses for, the inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks, trade names, service names, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned or licensed by them or which are necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted or as currently proposed to be conducted (with respect to the commercialization of the product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to own or license such rights would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect) (collectively, “Intellectual Property”).  There are no third parties who have rights to any Intellectual Property, except for:  (i) the exclusive license granted to Janssen Biotech. Inc., a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson (pursuant to Option and License Agreement dated December 17, 2013, as amended); (ii) certain rights retained by Children’s Medical Center Corporation (CMCC), including rights to practice and use the co-owned patent rights for research, educational, clinical and charitable purposes; and (iii) any customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as licensed to the Company or one or more of its subsidiaries; and, to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any Intellectual Property.  There is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others: (A) challenging the Company’s rights in or to any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; or (C) asserting that the Company or any of its subsidiaries infringes or otherwise violates, or would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as under development, infringe or violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others,

 

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and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim.  The Company and its subsidiaries have complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or any subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect.  The product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development by the Company or any subsidiary fall within the scope of the claims of one or more patents or pending patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or any subsidiary.

 

(v)                                 All Necessary Permits, etc.  The Company and its subsidiaries possess such valid and current certificates, authorizations or permits required by state, federal or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted and as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (“Permits”), except where the failure to possess the same or so qualify would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, any of the Permits or has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with the Permits, except for such violations, defaults or proceedings if resolved unfavorably, would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(w)                               Title to Properties.  The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all of the real and personal property and other assets reflected as owned in the financial statements referred to in Section 2(k) above (or elsewhere in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus), in each case free and clear of any security interests, mortgages, liens, encumbrances, equities, adverse claims and other defects, except such as do not materially and adversely affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such property by the Company.  The real property, improvements, equipment and personal property held under lease by the Company or any of its subsidiaries are held under valid and enforceable leases, with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such real property, improvements, equipment or personal property by the Company or such subsidiary.

 

(x)                                 Tax Law Compliance.  Except in any case in which failure to pay or file (as applicable) would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries have filed all necessary federal, state and foreign income and franchise tax returns or have properly requested extensions thereof and have paid all taxes required to be paid by any of them and, if due and payable, any related or similar assessment, fine or penalty levied against any of them except as may be being contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings.  Except to the extent of any inadequacy that would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company has made adequate charges, accruals and reserves in the applicable financial statements referred to in Section 2(k) above in respect of all federal, state and foreign income and franchise taxes for all periods as to which the tax liability of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has not been finally determined.

 

(y)                                 Insurance.  Each of the Company and its subsidiaries are insured by recognized, financially sound and reputable institutions with policies in such amounts and with such deductibles and covering such risks as are reasonably deemed adequate and customary for their businesses including, but not limited to, policies covering real and personal property owned or

 

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leased by the Company and its subsidiaries against theft, damage, destruction, acts of vandalism and earthquakes and policies covering the Company and its subsidiaries for product liability claims and clinical trial liability claims.  The Company has no reason to believe that it or any of its subsidiaries will not be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been denied any insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

 

(z)                                  Compliance with Environmental Laws.  Except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect:  (i) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries have all permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements; (iii) there are no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or any of its subsidiaries; and (iv) there are no events or circumstances that might reasonably be expected to form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit or proceeding by any private party or governmental body or agency, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries relating to Hazardous Materials or any Environmental Laws.

 

(aa)                          No Rated Debt or Preferred Securities. There are no debt or preferred securities issued, or guaranteed, by the Company or its subsidiaries that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization,” as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

 

(bb)                          ERISA Compliance.  The Company and its subsidiaries and any “employee benefit plan” (as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (collectively, “ERISA”)) established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or their “ERISA Affiliates” (as defined below) are in compliance in all material respects with ERISA.  “ERISA Affiliate” means, with respect to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, any member of any group of organizations described in Sections 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (the “Code”) of which the Company or such subsidiary is a member.  No “reportable event” (as defined under ERISA), for which notice has not been waived, has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur with respect to any “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA

 

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Affiliates.  No “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates, if such “employee benefit plan” were terminated, would have any “amount of unfunded benefit liabilities” (as defined under ERISA).  Neither the Company, its subsidiaries nor any of their ERISA Affiliates has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “employee benefit plan” or (ii) Sections 412, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code.  Each employee benefit plan established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and, to the knowledge of the Company, nothing has occurred, whether by action or failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.

 

(cc)                            Company Not an “Investment Company.”  The Company is not, and will not be, either after receipt of payment for the Shares or after the application of the proceeds therefrom as described under “Use of Proceeds” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, required to register as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

 

(dd)                          No Price Stabilization or Manipulation; Compliance with Regulation M.  The Company has not taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Common Shares or any other “reference security” (as defined in Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act (Regulation M”)) whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and has taken no action which would directly or indirectly violate Regulation M.  The Company acknowledges that the Agent may engage in passive market making transactions in the Shares on the Principal Market in accordance with Regulation M.  The Common Shares are currently “actively traded securities” (as defined in Regulation M).

 

(ee)                            Related-Party Transactions.  There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any other person required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that have not been described as required.

 

(ff)                              FINRA Matters.  All of the information provided to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent by the Company, its counsel, its officers and directors and, to the Company’s knowledge, the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or options to acquire any securities of the Company in connection with the offering of the Shares is true, complete, correct and compliant with FINRA’s rules and any letters, filings or other supplemental information provided to FINRA pursuant to FINRA Rules or NASD Conduct Rules is true, complete and correct.

 

(gg)                            Market Capitalization.  At the time the Registration Statement was or will be originally declared effective, and thereafter at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.  The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company.

 

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(hh)                          Statistical and Market-Related Data.  All statistical, demographic and market-related data included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes, after reasonable inquiry, to be reliable and accurate.  To the extent required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources.

 

(ii)                                  No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the best knowledge of the Company, any employee or agent of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, has made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state or foreign office in violation of any applicable law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

 

(jj)                                Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, controlled affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has, in the course of its actions for, or on behalf of, the Company or any of its subsidiaries (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expenses relating to political activity; (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to any domestic government official, “foreign official” (as defined in the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder, collectively, the “FCPA”) or employee from corporate funds; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the FCPA or any applicable non-U.S. anti-bribery statute or regulation; or (iv) made any unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful payment to any domestic government official, such foreign official or employee; and the Company and its subsidiaries and, to the knowledge of the Company, the Company’s controlled affiliates have conducted their respective businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

 

(kk)                          Money Laundering Laws.  The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are, and have been conducted at all times, in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all applicable jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar applicable rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(ll)                                  OFAC.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, after due inquiry, any director, officer, agent, employee, controlled affiliate or person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department (“OFAC”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of this offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, or any joint venture partner or other person or entity, for the purpose of financing the activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that currently is the subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person

 

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(including any person participating in the transaction whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC.

 

(mm)                  Brokers.  Except pursuant to this Agreement, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

 

(nn)                          Forward-Looking Statements.  Each financial or operational projection or other “forward-looking statement” (as defined by Section 27A of the Securities Act or Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (i) was so included by the Company in good faith and with reasonable basis after due consideration by the Company of the underlying assumptions, estimates and other applicable facts and circumstances and (ii) is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying those factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statement. No such statement was made with the knowledge of an executive officer or director of the Company that it was false or misleading.

 

(oo)                          Emerging Growth Company Status.  From the time of initial confidential submission of the Company’s Original Registration Statement to the Commission through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

 

(pp)                          Clinical Data and Regulatory Compliance.  The preclinical tests and clinical trials, if any, and other studies (collectively, “studies”) conducted by or on behalf of or sponsored by the Company that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols, procedures and controls designed and approved for such studies and with standard medical and scientific research procedures; each description of the results of such studies is accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly presents the data derived from such studies, and the Company and its subsidiaries have no knowledge of any other studies the results of which are inconsistent with, or otherwise call into question, the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; the Company and its subsidiaries have made all such filings and obtained all such approvals as may be required by the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or any committee thereof or from any other U.S. or foreign government or drug or medical device regulatory agency, or health care facility Institutional Review Board (collectively, the “Regulatory Agencies”); neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of, or correspondence from, any Regulatory Agency requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any clinical trials that are described or referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; and the Company and its subsidiaries have each operated and currently are in compliance in all material respects with all applicable rules, regulations and policies of the Regulatory Agencies.

 

(qq)                          Compliance with Health Care Laws. Except as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, and except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or may reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect: (i) the Company’s and each of its subsidiaries’ business practices have been structured in a manner designed to comply with state, federal and foreign laws applicable to the Company and its subsidiaries respective businesses, and

 

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the Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance with such laws including, without limitation, applicable provisions of: (A) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.) and the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. § 201 et seq.), and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (B) all applicable federal, state, local and all applicable foreign health care related fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. §1320a-7b(b)), the U.S. civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. §3729 et seq.), the federal criminal false claims law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), the federal civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), the Stark Law (42 U.S.C. §1395nn), the U.S. Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), 18 U.S.C. §§286, 287, 1347, and 1349 and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. §1320d et seq.), the exclusion law (42 U.S.C. §1320a-7), Medicare, Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, and Medicaid, Title XIX of the Social Security Act, and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes; and (C)  HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. §17921 et seq.), and the regulations promulgated thereunder and any state or non-U.S. counterpart thereof or other law or regulation the purpose of which is to protect the privacy of individuals or prescribers (collectively, “Health Care Laws”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries have not engaged in activities which are cause for false claims liability, civil penalties, or mandatory or permissive exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid, or any other state health care program or federal health care program; (iii) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries have received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any product, operation or activity is in violation of any Health Care Laws nor, to the knowledge of the Company, is any, such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action threatened; (iv) neither the Company nor any subsidiary has received written notice that any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke applicable Permits or has any knowledge that any such court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is considering such action; (v) the Company and its subsidiaries have filed, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws, and all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed in all material respects (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (vi) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries are a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, plans of correction, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority; and (vii) neither the Company, its subsidiaries nor any of their respective officers, directors, employees, or agents have been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.

 

(rr)                                No Rights to Purchase Preferred Stock.  The issuance and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby will not cause any holder of any shares of capital stock, securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for capital stock or options, warrants or other rights to purchase capital stock or any other securities of the Company to have any right to acquire any shares of preferred stock of the Company.

 

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(ss)                              No Contract Terminations.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew, any of the contracts or agreements referred to or described in the Prospectus or any free writing prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company or any of its subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other party to any such contract or agreement, which threat of termination or non-renewal has not been rescinded as of the date hereof.

 

(tt)                                Dividend Restrictions.  No subsidiary of the Company is prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying dividends to the Company, or from making any other distribution with respect to such subsidiary’s equity securities or from repaying to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company any amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company or to any other subsidiary.

 

(uu)                          Sarbanes-Oxley.  The Company is in compliance, in all material respects, with all applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

(vv)                          Duties, Transfer Taxes, Etc.  No material stamp or other issuance or transfer taxes or duties and no capital gains, income, withholding or other taxes are payable by the Agent in the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or therein in connection with the execution, delivery or performance of this Agreement by the Company or the sale and delivery by the Company of the Shares.

 

(ww)                      Underwriter Agreements.  The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

 

(xx)                          Cybersecurity. To the best of the Company’s knowledge, the Company and its subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable physical, technical and administrative controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data, including “Personal Data,” used in connection with their businesses.  “Personal Data” means (i) a natural person’s name, street address, telephone number, e-mail address, photograph, social security number or tax identification number, driver’s license number, passport number, credit card number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended; (iii) “personal data” as defined by GDPR; (iv) any information which would qualify as “protected health information” under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (collectively, “HIPAA”); and (v) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural

 

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person, or his or her family, or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. There have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and its subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.

 

Any certificate signed by any officer or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries and delivered to the Agent or counsel for the Agent in connection with an issuance of Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Agent as to the matters covered thereby on the date of such certificate.

 

The Company acknowledges that the Agent and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to the Agent, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

 

Section 3.  ISSUANCE AND SALE OF COMMON SHARES

 

(a)                                 Sale of Securities.  On the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements herein contained, but subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company may from time to time seek to sell Shares through the Agent, acting as sales agent, or directly to the Agent, acting as principal, as follows, with an aggregate Sales Price of up to the Maximum Program Amount, based on and in accordance with Issuance Notices as the Company may deliver, during the Agency Period.

 

(b)                                 Mechanics of Issuances.

 

(i)  Issuance Notice.  Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, on any Trading Day during the Agency Period on which the conditions set forth in Section 5(a) and Section 5(b) shall have been satisfied, the Company may exercise its right to request an issuance of Shares by delivering to the Agent an Issuance Notice; provided, however, that (A) in no event may the Company deliver an Issuance Notice to the extent that (I) the sum of (x) the aggregate Sales Price of the requested Issuance Amount, plus (y) the aggregate Sales Price of all Shares issued under all previous Issuance Notices effected pursuant to this Agreement, would exceed the Maximum Program Amount; and (B) prior to delivery of any Issuance Notice, the period set forth for any previous Issuance Notice shall have expired or been terminated. An Issuance Notice shall be considered delivered on the Trading Day that it is received by e-mail to the persons set forth in Schedule A hereto and confirmed by the Company by telephone (including a voicemail message to the persons so identified), with the understanding that, with adequate prior written notice, the Agent may modify the list of such persons from time to time.

 

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(ii)                                  Agent Efforts.  Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement, upon the receipt of an Issuance Notice, the Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal sales and trading practices to place the Shares with respect to which the Agent has agreed to act as sales agent, subject to, and in accordance with the information specified in, the Issuance Notice, unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been suspended, cancelled or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.  For the avoidance of doubt, the parties to this Agreement may modify an Issuance Notice at any time provided they both agree in writing to any such modification.

 

(iii)                               Method of Offer and Sale.  The Shares may be offered and sold (A) in privately negotiated transactions with the consent of the Company; (B) as block transactions; or (C) by any other method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Principal Market or sales made into any other existing trading market of the Common Shares.  Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to require either party to agree to the method of offer and sale specified in the preceding sentence, and (except as specified in clauses (A) and (B) above) the method of placement of any Shares by the Agent shall be at the Agent’s discretion.

 

(iv)                              Confirmation to the Company.  If acting as sales agent hereunder, the Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day next following the Trading Day on which it has placed Shares hereunder setting forth the number of shares sold on such Trading Day, the corresponding Sales Price and the Issuance Price payable to the Company in respect thereof.

 

(v)                                 Settlement.  Each issuance of Shares will be settled on the applicable Settlement Date for such issuance of Shares and, subject to the provisions of Section 5, on or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting the Agent or its designee’s account at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit/Withdrawal At Custodian (DWAC) System, or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto and, upon receipt of such Shares, which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form, the Agent will deliver, by wire transfer of immediately available funds, the related Issuance Price in same day funds delivered to an account designated by the Company prior to the Settlement Date.  The Company may sell Shares to the Agent as principal at a price agreed upon at each relevant time Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement (each, a “Time of Sale”).

 

(vi)                              Suspension or Termination of Sales.  Consistent with standard market settlement practices, the Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party hereto in writing or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable email), suspend any sale of Shares, and the period set forth in an Issuance Notice shall immediately terminate; provided, however, that (A) such suspension and termination shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares placed or sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice; (B) if the Company suspends or terminates any sale of Shares after the Agent confirms such sale to the Company, the Company shall still be obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares; and (C) if the Company defaults in its obligation to deliver Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that it will hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage or expense (including, without limitation, penalties, interest and reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or

 

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in connection with such default by the Company. The parties hereto acknowledge and agree that, in performing its obligations under this Agreement, the Agent may borrow Common Shares from stock lenders in the event that the Company has not delivered Shares to settle sales as required by subsection (v) above, and may use the Shares to settle or close out such borrowings.  The Company agrees that no such notice shall be effective against the Agent unless it is made to the persons identified in writing by the Agent pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

 

(vii)                           No Guarantee of Placement, Etc.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in placing Shares; (B) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other Person if it does not sell Shares; and (C) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Agent and the Company.

 

(viii)                        Material Non-Public Information.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company shall not deliver any Issuance Notice to the Agent, and the Agent shall not be obligated to place any Shares, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information.

 

(c)                                  Fees.  As compensation for services rendered, the Company shall pay to the Agent, on the applicable Settlement Date, the Selling Commission for the applicable Issuance Amount (including with respect to any suspended or terminated sale pursuant to Section 3(b)(vi)) by the Agent deducting the Selling Commission from the applicable Issuance Amount.

 

(d)                                 Expenses.  The Company agrees to pay all costs, fees and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of its obligations hereunder and in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation (i) all expenses incident to the issuance and delivery of the Shares (including all printing and engraving costs); (ii) all fees and expenses of the registrar and transfer agent of the Shares; (iii) all necessary issue, transfer and other stamp taxes in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares; (iv) all fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel, independent public or certified public accountants and other advisors; (v) all costs and expenses incurred in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, shipping and distribution of the Registration Statement (including financial statements, exhibits, schedules, consents and certificates of experts), the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company, and all amendments and supplements thereto, and this Agreement; (vi) all filing fees, attorneys’ fees and expenses incurred by the Company or the Agent in connection with qualifying or registering (or obtaining exemptions from the qualification or registration of) all or any part of the Shares for offer and sale under the state securities or blue sky laws or the provincial securities laws of Canada, and, if requested by the Agent, preparing and printing a “Blue Sky Survey” or memorandum and a “Canadian wrapper,, and any supplements thereto, advising the Agent of such qualifications, registrations, determinations and exemptions; (vii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s counsel, including the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Agent in connection with, FINRA review, if any, and approval of the Agent’s participation in the offering and distribution of the Shares; (viii) the filing fees incident to FINRA review, if any; (ix) the costs and expenses of the Company relating to investor presentations on any “road show” undertaken in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Shares, including, without limitation, expenses associated with the preparation or dissemination of any electronic road show, expenses associated

 

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with the production of road show slides and graphics, fees and expenses of any consultants engaged in connection with the road show presentations with the prior approval of the Company, travel and lodging expenses of the representatives, employees and officers of the Company and of the Agent and any such consultants, and the cost of any aircraft chartered in connection with the road show; and (x) the fees and expenses associated with listing the Shares on the Principal Market. The fees and disbursements of Agent’s counsel pursuant to subsections (vi) and (vii) above shall not exceed $50,000.

 

Section 4.  ADDITIONAL COVENANTS

 

The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent as follows, in addition to any other covenants and agreements made elsewhere in this Agreement:

 

(a)                                 Exchange Act Compliance.  During the Agency Period, the Company shall (i) file, on a timely basis, with the Commission all reports and documents required to be filed under Section 13, 14 or 15 of the Exchange Act in the manner and within the time periods required by the Exchange Act; and (ii) either (A) include in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and its annual reports on Form 10-K, a summary detailing, for the relevant reporting period, (1) the number of Shares sold through the Agent pursuant to this Agreement and (2) the net proceeds received by the Company from such sales or (B) prepare a prospectus supplement containing, or include in such other filing permitted by the Securities Act or Exchange Act (each an “Interim Prospectus Supplement”), such summary information and, at least once a quarter and subject to this Section 4, file such Interim Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (and within the time periods required by Rule 424(b) and Rule 430B under the Securities Act)).

 

(b)                                 Securities Act Compliance.  After the date of this Agreement, the Company shall promptly advise the Agent in writing (i) of the receipt of any comments of, or requests for additional or supplemental information from, the Commission; (ii) of the time and date of any filing of any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus; (iii) of the time and date that any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement becomes effective; and (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus or of any order preventing or suspending the use of any Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus, or of any proceedings to remove, suspend or terminate from listing or quotation the Common Shares from any securities exchange upon which they are listed for trading or included or designated for quotation, or of the threatening or initiation of any proceedings for any of such purposes.  If the Commission shall enter any such stop order at any time, the Company will use its best efforts to obtain the lifting of such order as soon as practicable.  Additionally, the Company agrees that it shall comply with the provisions of Rule 424(b) and Rule 433, as applicable, under the Securities Act and will use its reasonable efforts to confirm that any filings made by the Company under such Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 were received in a timely manner by the Commission.

 

(c)                                  Amendments and Supplements to the Prospectus and Other Securities Act Matters.  If any event shall occur or condition exist as a result of which it is necessary to amend or

 

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supplement the Prospectus so that the Prospectus does not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading, or if in the opinion of the Agent or counsel for the Agent it is otherwise necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus to comply with applicable law, including the Securities Act, the Company agrees (subject to Section 4(d) and 4(f)) to promptly prepare, file with the Commission and furnish at its own expense to the Agent, amendments or supplements to the Prospectus so that the statements in the Prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, be misleading or so that the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, will comply with applicable law including the Securities Act (it being acknowledged that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if, in the judgement of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company).  Neither the Agent’s consent to, or delivery of, any such amendment or supplement shall constitute a waiver of any of the Company’s obligations under Sections 4(d) and 4(f).

 

(d)                                 Agent’s Review of Proposed Amendments and Supplements.  Prior to amending or supplementing the Registration Statement (including any registration statement filed under Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act) or the Prospectus (excluding any amendment or supplement through incorporation of any report filed under the Exchange Act), the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each such proposed amendment or supplement, and the Company shall not file or use any such proposed amendment or supplement without the Agent’s prior consent, and to file with the Commission within the applicable period specified in Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act any prospectus required to be filed pursuant to such Rule.

 

(e)                                  Use of Free Writing Prospectus. Neither the Company nor the Agent has prepared, used, referred to or distributed, or will prepare, use, refer to or distribute, without the other party’s prior written consent, any “written communication” that constitutes a “free writing prospectus” as such terms are defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act with respect to the offering contemplated by this Agreement (any such free writing prospectus being referred to herein as a “Free Writing Prospectus”).

 

(f)                                   Free Writing Prospectuses.  The Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto to be prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto without the Agent’s consent, which shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed.  The Company shall furnish to the Agent, without charge, as many copies of any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, or used by the Company, as the Agent may reasonably request.  If at any time when a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares (but in any event if at any time through and including the date of this Agreement) there occurred or occurs an event or development as a result of which any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company conflicted or would conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or included or would include an untrue statement of a material fact or

 

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omitted or would omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading, the Company shall promptly amend or supplement such free writing prospectus to eliminate or correct such conflict or so that the statements in such free writing prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at such subsequent time, not misleading, as the case may be; provided, however, that prior to amending or supplementing any such free writing prospectus, the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of such proposed amended or supplemented free writing prospectus and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any such amended or supplemented free writing prospectus without the Agent’s consent, which shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed.

 

(g)                                  Filing of Agent Free Writing Prospectuses.  The Company shall not to take any action that would result in the Agent or the Company being required to file with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act a free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of the Agent that the Agent otherwise would not have been required to file thereunder.

 

(h)                                 Copies of Registration Statement and Prospectus.  After the date of this Agreement through the last time that a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares, the Company agrees to furnish the Agent with copies (which may be electronic copies) of the Registration Statement and each amendment thereto, and with copies of the Prospectus and each amendment or supplement thereto in the form in which it is filed with the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act or Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, both in such quantities as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time; and, if the delivery of a prospectus is required under the Securities Act or under the blue sky or securities laws of any jurisdiction at any time on or prior to the applicable Settlement Date for any period set forth in an Issuance Notice in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares and if at such time any event has occurred as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made when such Prospectus is delivered, not misleading, or, if for any other reason it is necessary during such same period to amend or supplement the Prospectus or to file under the Exchange Act any document incorporated by reference in the Prospectus in order to comply with the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, to notify the Agent and to request that the Agent suspend offers to sell Shares (and, if so notified, the Agent shall cease such offers as soon as practicable); and if the Company decides to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented, to advise the Agent promptly by telephone (with confirmation in writing) and to prepare and cause to be filed promptly with the Commission an amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented that will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance (it being acknowledged that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if, in the judgement of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company); provided, however, that if during such same period the Agent is required to deliver a prospectus in respect of transactions in the Shares, the Company shall promptly prepare and file with the Commission such an amendment or supplement.

 

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(i)                                     Blue Sky Compliance.  The Company shall cooperate with the Agent and counsel for the Agent to qualify or register the Shares for sale under (or obtain exemptions from the application of) the state securities or blue sky laws or Canadian provincial securities laws of those jurisdictions designated by the Agent, shall comply with such laws and shall continue such qualifications, registrations and exemptions in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares.  The Company shall not be required to qualify as a foreign corporation or to take any action that would subject it to general service of process in any such jurisdiction where it is not presently qualified or where it would be subject to taxation as a foreign corporation.  The Company will advise the Agent promptly of the suspension of the qualification or registration of (or any such exemption relating to) the Shares for offering, sale or trading in any jurisdiction or any initiation or threat of any proceeding for any such purpose, and in the event of the issuance of any order suspending such qualification, registration or exemption, the Company shall use its best efforts to obtain the withdrawal thereof as soon as practicable.

 

(j)                                    Earnings Statement.  As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent an earnings statement (which need not be audited) covering a period of at least twelve months beginning with the first fiscal quarter of the Company occurring after the date of this Agreement which shall satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

 

(k)                                 Listing; Reservation of Shares.  (a)  The Company will maintain the listing of the Shares on the Principal Market; and (b) the Company will reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, Shares for the purpose of enabling the Company to satisfy its obligations under this Agreement.

 

(l)                                     Transfer Agent.  The Company shall engage and maintain, at its expense, a registrar and transfer agent for the Shares.

 

(m)                             Due Diligence.   During the term of this Agreement, the Company will reasonably cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during normal business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time.

 

(n)                                 Representations and Warranties.  The Company acknowledges that each delivery of an Issuance Notice and each delivery of Shares on a Settlement Date shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation to the Agent that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such Issuance Notice or of such Settlement Date, as the case may be, as though made at and as of each such date, except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto); and (ii) an undertaking that the Company will advise the Agent if any of such representations and warranties will not be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such Issuance Notice, as though made at and as of each such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

 

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(o)                                 Deliverables at Triggering Event Dates; Certificates. The Company agrees that on or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and, during the term of this Agreement after the date of the first Issuance Notice, upon:

 

(A)                               the filing of the Prospectus or the amendment or supplement of any Registration Statement or Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Shares or a prospectus filed pursuant to Section 4(a)(ii)(B)), by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement, but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus;

 

(B)                               the filing with the Commission of an annual report on Form 10-K or a quarterly report on Form 10-Q (including any Form 10-K/A or Form 10-Q/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q), in each case, of the Company; or

 

(C)                               the filing with the Commission of a current report on Form 8-K of the Company containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) that is material to the offering of securities of the Company in the Agent’s reasonable discretion;

 

(any such event, a “Triggering Event Date”), the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (C) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such current report on Form 8-K of the Company is material) with a certificate as of the Triggering Event Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented, (A) confirming that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in this Agreement are true and correct, (B) that the Company has performed all of its obligations hereunder to be performed on or prior to the date of such certificate and as to the matters set forth in Section 5(a)(iii) hereof, and (C) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 4(o) shall be waived for any Triggering Event Date occurring at a time when no Issuance Notice is pending or a suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Triggering Event Date) and the next occurring Triggering Event Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Triggering Event Date when a suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 4(o), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Shares or the Agent sells any Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 4(o) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Shares are issued.

 

(p)                                 Legal Opinions.  On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this

 

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Agreement, a negative assurances letter and the written legal opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP, counsel to the Company and McCarter & English, LLP, intellectual property counsel to the Company, each dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented. In lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings, in the discretion of the Agent, the Company may furnish a reliance letter from such counsel to the Agent, permitting the Agent to rely on a previously delivered opinion letter, modified as appropriate for any passage of time or Triggering Event Date (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of such Triggering Event Date).

 

(q)                                 Comfort Letter. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause Ernst & Young LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm who has audited the financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, to furnish the Agent a comfort letter, dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel; provided, however, that any such comfort letter will only be required on the Triggering Event Date specified to the extent that it contains financial statements filed with the Commission under the Exchange Act and incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into a Prospectus.  If requested by the Agent, the Company shall also cause a comfort letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event requiring the filing of a current report on Form 8-K containing material amended financial information of the Company, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Company shall be required to furnish no more than one comfort letter hereunder per calendar quarter.

 

(r)    Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on each Triggering Event Date, the Company shall furnish the Agent a certificate executed by the Secretary of the Company, signing in such capacity, dated the date of delivery (i) certifying that attached thereto are true and complete copies of the resolutions duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution and delivery of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (including, without limitation, the issuance of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement), which authorization shall be in full force and effect on and as of the date of such certificate, (ii) certifying and attesting to the office, incumbency, due authority and specimen signatures of each Person who executed this Agreement for or on behalf of the Company, and (iii) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request.

 

(s)                                   Agent’s Own Account; Clients’ Account.  The Company consents to the Agent trading, in compliance with applicable law, in the Common Shares for the Agent’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(t)                                    Investment Limitation.  The Company shall not invest, or otherwise use the proceeds received by the Company from its sale of the Shares in such a manner as would require

 

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the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

 

(u)                                 Market Activities.  The Company will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares or any other reference security, whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with all applicable provisions of Regulation M.  If the limitations of Rule 102 of Regulation M (“Rule 102”) do not apply with respect to the Shares or any other reference security pursuant to any exception set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102, then promptly upon notice from the Agent (or, if later, at the time stated in the notice), the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with Rule 102 as though such exception were not available but the other provisions of Rule 102 (as interpreted by the Commission) did apply. The Company shall promptly notify the Agent if it no longer meets the requirements set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102.

 

(v)                                 Notice of Other Sale.  Without the written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares (other than Shares hereunder), warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares, during the period beginning on the third Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Issuance Notice is delivered to the Agent hereunder and ending on the third Trading Day immediately following the Settlement Date with respect to Shares sold pursuant to such Issuance Notice and will not directly or indirectly enter into any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares (other than the Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Shares prior to the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restriction will not be required in connection with the Company’s (i) issuance or sale of Common Shares, options to purchase Common Shares or Common Shares issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any employee or director share option, incentive or benefit plan, share purchase or ownership plan, long-term incentive plan, dividend reinvestment plan, inducement award under the Principal Market rules or other compensation plan of the Company or its subsidiaries, as in effect on the date of this Agreement, (ii) issuance or sale of Common Shares issuable upon exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other equity awards outstanding at the date of this Agreement, (iii) issuance or sale of Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations, joint ventures or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not used for capital raising purposes and (iv) modification of any outstanding options, warrants of any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares.

 

Section 5.  CONDITIONS TO DELIVERY OF ISSUANCE NOTICES AND TO SETTLEMENT

 

(a)                                 Conditions Precedent to the Right of the Company to Deliver an Issuance Notice and the Obligation of the Agent to Sell Shares.  The right of the Company to deliver an Issuance Notice hereunder is subject to the satisfaction, on the date of delivery of such Issuance Notice, and

 

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the obligation of the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice is subject to the satisfaction, on each Trading Day during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice, of each of the following conditions:

 

(i)                                     Accuracy of the Company’s Representations and Warranties; Performance by the Company.  The Company shall have delivered the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 4(o). The Company shall have performed, satisfied and complied with all covenants, agreements and conditions required by this Agreement to be performed, satisfied or complied with by the Company at or prior to such date, including, but not limited to, the covenants contained in Section 4(p), Section 4(q) and Section 4(r).

 

(ii)                                  No Injunction.  No statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, ruling or injunction shall have been enacted, entered, promulgated or endorsed by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction or any self-regulatory organization having authority over the matters contemplated hereby that prohibits or directly and materially adversely affects any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, and no proceeding shall have been commenced that may have the effect of prohibiting or materially adversely affecting any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

 

(iii)                               Material Adverse Changes. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Time of Sale Information, (a) in the judgment of the Agent there shall not have occurred any Material Adverse Change; and (b) there shall not have occurred any downgrading, nor shall any notice have been given of any intended or potential downgrading or of any review for a possible change that does not indicate the direction of the possible change, in the rating accorded any securities of the Company or any of its subsidiaries by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” as such term is defined for purposes of Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

 

(iv)                              No Suspension of Trading in or Delisting of Common Shares; Other Events.  The trading of the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall not have been suspended by the Commission, the Principal Market or FINRA and the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall have been approved for listing or quotation on and shall not have been delisted from the the Nasdaq Stock Market, the New York Stock Exchange or any of their constituent markets.  There shall not have occurred (and be continuing in the case of occurrences under clauses (i) and (ii) below) any of the following:  (i) trading or quotation in any of the Company’s securities shall have been suspended or limited by the Commission or by the Principal Market or trading in securities generally on either the Principal Market shall have been suspended or limited, or minimum or maximum prices shall have been generally established on any of such stock exchanges by the Commission or the FINRA; (ii) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of federal or New York, authorities; or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak

 

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or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States’ or international political, financial or economic conditions, as in the judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impracticable to market the Shares in the manner and on the terms described in the Prospectus or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities.

 

(b)                                 Documents Required to be Delivered on each Issuance Notice Date.  The Agent’s obligation to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares hereunder shall additionally be conditioned upon the delivery to the Agent on or before the Issuance Notice Date of a certificate in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, executed by the Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, to the effect that all conditions to the delivery of such Issuance Notice shall have been satisfied as at the date of such certificate (which certificate shall not be required if the foregoing representations shall be set forth in the Issuance Notice).

 

(c)                                  No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Times of Sale Information, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)                                 Agent Counsel Legal Opinion. Agent shall have received from Cooley LLP,  counsel for Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 4(p), with respect to such matters as Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

 

Section 6.  INDEMNIFICATION AND CONTRIBUTION

 

(a)                                 Indemnification of the Agent.  The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its officers and employees, and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any

 

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amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and to reimburse the Agent and each such officer, employee and controlling person for any and all expenses (including the fees and disbursements of counsel chosen by the Agent) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action; provided, however, that the foregoing indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense to the extent, but only to the extent, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information described in subsection (b) below.  The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(a)  shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Company may otherwise have.

 

(b)                                 Indemnification of the Company, its Directors and Officers. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signed the Registration Statement and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Company or any such director, officer or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; but, for each of (i) and (ii) above, only to the extent arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information set forth in the ninth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus, and to reimburse the Company and each such director, officer and controlling person for any and all expenses (including the fees and disbursements of one counsel chosen by the Company) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by the Company or such officer, director or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(b) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Agent or the Company may otherwise have.

 

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(c)                                  Notifications and Other Indemnification Procedures.  Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 6 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against an indemnifying party under this Section 6, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof, but the omission so to notify the indemnifying party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any indemnified party for contribution or otherwise than under the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6 or to the extent it is not materially prejudiced as a proximate result of such failure.  In case any such action is brought against any indemnified party and such indemnified party seeks or intends to seek indemnity from an indemnifying party, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in, and, to the extent that it shall elect, jointly with all other indemnifying parties similarly notified, by written notice delivered to the indemnified party promptly after receiving the aforesaid notice from such indemnified party, to assume the defense thereof with counsel reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party; provided, however, if the defendants in any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that a conflict may arise between the positions of the indemnifying party and the indemnified party in conducting the defense of any such action or that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, the indemnified party or parties shall have the right to select separate counsel to assume such legal defenses and to otherwise participate in the defense of such action on behalf of such indemnified party or parties.  Upon receipt of notice from the indemnifying party to such indemnified party of such indemnifying party’s election so to assume the defense of such action and approval by the indemnified party of counsel, the indemnifying party will not be liable to such indemnified party under this Section 6 for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by such indemnified party in connection with the defense thereof unless (i) the indemnified party shall have employed separate counsel in accordance with the proviso to the preceding sentence (it being understood, however, that the indemnifying party shall not be liable for the fees and expenses of more than one separate counsel (together with local counsel), representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action), which counsel (together with any local counsel) for the indemnified parties shall be selected by the indemnified party (in the case of counsel for the indemnified parties referred to in Section 6(a) and (b) above), (ii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of commencement of the action or (iii) the indemnifying party has authorized in writing the employment of counsel for the indemnified party at the expense of the indemnifying party, in each of which cases the fees and expenses of counsel shall be at the expense of the indemnifying party and shall be paid as they are incurred.

 

(d)                                 Settlements.  The indemnifying party under this Section 6 shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense by reason of such settlement or judgment.  Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by Section 6(c) hereof, the indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 30 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request; and (ii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance

 

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with such request prior to the date of such settlement.  No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of the indemnified party, effect any settlement, compromise or consent to the entry of judgment in any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding in respect of which any indemnified party is or could have been a party and indemnity was or could have been sought hereunder by such indemnified party, unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of such indemnified party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such action, suit or proceeding.

 

(e)                                  Contribution.  If the indemnification provided for in this Section 6 is for any reason held to be unavailable to or otherwise insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party in respect of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein, then each indemnifying party shall contribute to the aggregate amount paid or payable by such indemnified party, as incurred, as a result of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement; or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations.  The relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement shall be deemed to be in the same respective proportions as the total gross proceeds from the offering of the Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total commissions received by the Agent.  The relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any such untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company, on the one hand, or the Agent, on the other hand, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.

 

The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of the losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses referred to above shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(c), any legal or other fees or expenses reasonably incurred by such party in connection with investigating or defending any action or claim.  The provisions set forth in Section 6(c) with respect to notice of commencement of any action shall apply if a claim for contribution is to be made under this Section 6(e); provided, however, that no additional notice shall be required with respect to any action for which notice has been given under Section 6(c) for purposes of indemnification.

 

The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 6(e) were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in this Section 6(e).

 

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the Selling Commission received by the Agent in connection

 

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with the offering contemplated hereby.  No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.  For purposes of this Section 6(e), each officer and employee of the Agent and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Agent, and each director of the Company, each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company.

 

Section 7.  TERMINATION & SURVIVAL

 

(a)                                 Term.  Subject to the provisions of this Section 7, the term of this Agreement shall continue from the date of this Agreement until the end of the Agency Period, unless earlier terminated by the parties to this Agreement pursuant to this Section 7.

 

(b)                                 Termination; Survival Following Termination.

 

(i)             Either party may terminate this Agreement prior to the end of the Agency Period, by giving written notice as required by this Agreement, upon ten calendar days’ notice to the other party; provided that, (A) if the Company terminates this Agreement after the Agent confirms to the Company any sale of Shares, the Company shall remain obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares and (B) Section 2, Section 3(d), Section 6, Section 7 and Section 8 shall survive termination of this Agreement.  If termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such sale shall nevertheless settle in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. Except as set forth herein, upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to the Agent for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement.

 

(ii)          In addition to the survival provision of Section 7(b)(i), the respective indemnities, agreements, representations, warranties and other statements of the Company, of its officers and of the Agent set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent or the Company or any of its or their partners, officers or directors or any controlling person, as the case may be, and, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares sold hereunder and any termination of this Agreement.

 

Section 8.  MISCELLANEOUS

 

(a)                                 Press Releases and Disclosure.  The Company may issue a press release describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby as soon as practicable following the date of this Agreement, and may file with the Commission a Current Report on Form 8-K, with this Agreement attached as an exhibit thereto, describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby, and the Company shall consult with the Agent prior to making such disclosures, and the parties hereto shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good

 

33


 

faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosures that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto. No party hereto shall issue thereafter any press release or like public statement (including, without limitation,  any disclosure required in reports filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act) related to this Agreement or any of the transactions contemplated hereby without the prior written approval of the other party hereto, except as may be necessary or appropriate in the reasonable opinion of the party seeking to make disclosure to comply with the requirements of applicable law or stock exchange rules. If any such press release or like public statement is so required, the party making such disclosure shall consult with the other party prior to making such disclosure, and the parties shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosure that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto.

 

(b)                                 No Advisory or Fiduciary Relationship.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including the determination of any fees, are arm’s-length commercial transactions between the Company and the Agent, (ii) when acting as a principal under this Agreement, the Agent is and has been acting solely as a principal is not the agent or fiduciary of the Company, or its stockholders, creditors, employees or any other party, (iii) the Agent has not assumed nor will assume an advisory or fiduciary responsibility in favor of the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby or the process leading thereto (irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is currently advising the Company on other matters) and the Agent does not have any obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement, (iv) the Agent and its affiliates may be engaged in a broad range of transactions that involve interests that differ from those of the Company, and (v) the Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby and the Company has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it deemed appropriate.

 

(c)                                  Research Analyst Independence.  The Company acknowledges that the Agent’s research analysts and research departments are required to and should be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and as such the Agent’s research analysts may hold views and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company or the offering that differ from the views of their respective investment banking divisions.  The Company understands that the Agent is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short positions in debt or equity securities of the companies that may be the subject of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

 

(d)                                 Notices.  All communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be mailed, hand delivered or telecopied and confirmed to the parties hereto as follows:

 

If to the Agent:

 

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

34


 

Facsimile: 

Attention:  General Counsel

 

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

Cooley LLP

55 Hudson Yards

New York, NY 10001

Facsimile: (212) 479-6275

Attention: Daniel I. Goldberg, Esq.

 

If to the Company:

 

Scholar Rock Holding Corporation

620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor

Cambridge, MA 02139

 

Attention: Head of Corporate Legal

 

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

Goodwin Procter LLP

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, NY 10018

 

Attention: Kingsley Taft and Laurie A. Burlingame

 

Any party hereto may change the address for receipt of communications by giving written notice to the others in accordance with this Section 8(d).

 

(e)                                  Successors.  This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, and to the benefit of the employees, officers and directors and controlling persons referred to in Section 6, and in each case their respective successors, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder.  The term “successors” shall not include any purchaser of the Shares as such from the Agent merely by reason of such purchase.

 

(f)                                   Partial Unenforceability.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other Article, Section, paragraph or provision hereof.  If any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement is for any reason determined to be invalid or unenforceable, there shall be deemed to be made such minor changes (and only such minor changes) as are necessary to make it valid and enforceable.

 

(g)                                  Governing Law Provisions.  This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made and to be performed in such state.  Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby (“Related Proceedings”) may be

 

35


 

instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction (except for proceedings instituted in regard to the enforcement of a judgment of any such court (a “Related Judgment”), as to which such jurisdiction is non-exclusive) of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding.  Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court.  The parties irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim in any such court that any such suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

 

(h)                                 General Provisions.  This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement of the parties to this Agreement and supersedes all prior written or oral and all contemporaneous oral agreements, understandings and negotiations with respect to the subject matter hereof.  This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each one of which shall be an original, with the same effect as if the signatures thereto and hereto were upon the same instrument, and may be delivered by facsimile transmission or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file.  This Agreement may not be amended or modified unless in writing by all of the parties hereto, and no condition herein (express or implied) may be waived unless waived in writing by each party whom the condition is meant to benefit.  The Article and Section headings herein are for the convenience of the parties only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation of this Agreement.

 

[Signature Page Immediately Follows]

 

36


 

If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, kindly sign and return to the Company the enclosed copies hereof, whereupon this instrument, along with all counterparts hereof, shall become a binding agreement in accordance with its terms

 

 

 

Very truly yours,

 

 

 

SCHOLAR ROCK HOLDING CORPORATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Nagesh K. Mahanthappa

 

 

Name: Nagesh K. Mahanthappa

 

 

Title: President and Chief Executive Officer

 

 

The foregoing Agreement is hereby confirmed and accepted by the Agent in New York, New York as of the date first above written.

 

 

JEFFERIES LLC

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Michael Magarro

 

 

Name: Michael Magarro

 

 

Title: Managing Director

 

 


 

EXHIBIT A

 

ISSUANCE NOTICE

 

[Date]

 

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

 

Attn: [                      ]

 

Reference is made to the Open Market Sale Agreement between Scholar Rock Holding Corporation (the “Company”) and Jefferies LLC (the “Agent”) dated as of June 3, 2019.  The Company confirms that all conditions to the delivery of this Issuance Notice are satisfied as of the date hereof.

 

Date of Delivery of Issuance Notice (determined pursuant to Section 3(b)(i)):

 

 

Issuance Amount (equal to the total Sales Price for such Shares):

 

 

 

$

                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

Number of days in selling period:

 

                                                                           

 

 

 

 

 

First date of selling period:

 

                                                                           

 

 

 

 

 

Last date of selling period:

 

                                                                           

 

 

Settlement Date(s) if other than standard T+2 settlement:

 

 

Floor Price Limitation (in no event less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which consent may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion): $              per share

 

Comments:                                                                                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By:

 

 

 

Name:

 

 

Title:

 

A-1


 

Schedule A

 

Notice Parties

 

The Company

 

Nagesh Mahanthappa

 

Rhonda Chicko

 

Junlin Ho

 

The Agent

 

Donald Lynaugh

 

Jack Fabbri

 

Matthew Kim

 




Exhibit 4.5

 

SCHOLAR ROCK HOLDING CORPORATION

 

TO

 

Trustee

 

Indenture

 

Dated as of , 20

 

Senior Debt Securities

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

ARTICLE ONE - DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

1

SECTION 101

Definitions

1

SECTION 102

Compliance Certificates and Opinions

9

SECTION 103

Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee

10

SECTION 104

Acts of Holders

10

SECTION 105

Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company

11

SECTION 106

Notice to Holders; Waiver

12

SECTION 107

Counterparts; Effect of Headings and Table of Contents

13

SECTION 108

Successors and Assigns

13

SECTION 109

Severability Clause

13

SECTION 110

Benefits of Indenture

13

SECTION 111

Governing Law

13

SECTION 112

Legal Holidays

13

SECTION 113

Limited Liability; Immunity of Stockholders, Directors, Officers and Agents of the Company

13

SECTION 114

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

14

ARTICLE TWO - SECURITIES FORMS

14

SECTION 201

Forms of Securities

14

SECTION 202

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

14

SECTION 203

Securities Issuable in Global Form

14

ARTICLE THREE - THE SECURITIES

15

SECTION 301

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

15

SECTION 302

Denominations

19

SECTION 303

Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating

19

SECTION 304

Temporary Securities

21

SECTION 305

Registration, Registration of Transfer, Conversion and Exchange

23

SECTION 306

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

26

SECTION 307

Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved

27

SECTION 308

Persons Deemed Owners

28

SECTION 309

Cancellation

29

SECTION 310

Computation of Interest

29

SECTION 311

CUSIP Numbers

29

ARTICLE FOUR - SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

30

SECTION 401

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

30

SECTION 402

Application of Trust Funds

30

ARTICLE FIVE - REMEDIES

31

SECTION 501

Events of Default

31

SECTION 502

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment

32

SECTION 503

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

33

SECTION 504

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

34

SECTION 505

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities or Coupons

34

SECTION 506

Application of Money Collected

34

SECTION 507

Limitation on Suits

35

SECTION 508

Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal, Premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any, and Interest

35

 

i


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

SECTION 509

Restoration of Rights and Remedies

35

SECTION 510

Rights and Remedies Cumulative

36

SECTION 511

Delay or Omission Not Waiver

36

SECTION 512

Control by Holders of Securities

36

SECTION 513

Waiver of Past Defaults

36

SECTION 514

Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws

37

SECTION 515

Undertaking for Costs

37

ARTICLE SIX - THE TRUSTEE

37

SECTION 601

Notice of Defaults

37

SECTION 602

Certain Rights of Trustee

37

SECTION 603

Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities

39

SECTION 604

May Hold Securities

39

SECTION 605

Money Held in Trust

40

SECTION 606

Compensation and Reimbursement

40

SECTION 607

Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility; Conflicting Interests

40

SECTION 608

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor

41

SECTION 609

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor

42

SECTION 610

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

43

SECTION 611

Appointment of Authenticating Agent

43

SECTION 612

Certain Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee

44

ARTICLE SEVEN - HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY

45

SECTION 701

Disclosure of Names and Addresses of Holders

45

SECTION 702

Reports by Trustee

46

SECTION 703

Reports by Company

46

SECTION 704

Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders

46

ARTICLE EIGHT - CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE, LEASE OR CONVEYANCE

47

SECTION 801

Consolidations and Mergers of Company and Sales, Leases and Conveyances Permitted Subject to Certain Conditions

47

SECTION 802

Rights and Duties of Successor Corporation

47

SECTION 803

Officers’ Certificate and Opinion of Counsel

47

ARTICLE NINE - SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

48

SECTION 901

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders

48

SECTION 902

Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders

49

SECTION 903

Execution of Supplemental Indentures

50

SECTION 904

Effect of Supplemental Indentures

50

SECTION 905

Conformity with Trust Indenture Act

50

SECTION 906

Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures

50

ARTICLE TEN - COVENANTS

50

SECTION 1001

Payment of Principal, Premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any; and Interest

50

SECTION 1002

Maintenance of Office or Agency

51

SECTION 1003

Money for Securities Payments to Be Held in Trust

52

SECTION 1004

Existence

53

SECTION 1005

Maintenance of Properties

53

SECTION 1006

Insurance

54

SECTION 1007

Payment of Taxes and Other Claims

54

SECTION 1008

Statement as to Compliance

54

 

ii


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

SECTION 1009

Waiver of Certain Covenants

54

ARTICLE ELEVEN - REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

54

SECTION 1101

Applicability of Article

54

SECTION 1102

Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee

54

SECTION 1103

Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed

54

SECTION 1104

Notice of Redemption

55

SECTION 1105

Deposit of Redemption Price

56

SECTION 1106

Securities Payable on Redemption Date

56

SECTION 1107

Securities Redeemed in Part

57

ARTICLE TWELVE - SINKING FUNDS

57

SECTION 1201

Applicability of Article

57

SECTION 1202

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

58

SECTION 1203

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

58

ARTICLE THIRTEEN - REPAYMENT AT THE OPTION OF HOLDERS

58

SECTION 1301

Applicability of Article

58

SECTION 1302

Repayment of Securities

58

SECTION 1303

Exercise of Option

59

SECTION 1304

When Securities Presented for Repayment Become Due and Payable

59

SECTION 1305

Securities Repaid in Part

60

ARTICLE FOURTEEN - DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

60

SECTION 1401

Applicability of Article; Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance

60

SECTION 1402

Defeasance and Discharge

60

SECTION 1403

Covenant Defeasance

61

SECTION 1404

Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance

61

SECTION 1405

Deposited Money and Government Obligations to Be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions

62

ARTICLE FIFTEEN - MEETINGS OF HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

63

SECTION 1501

Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called

63

SECTION 1502

Call, Notice and Place of Meetings

63

SECTION 1503

Persons Entitled to Vote at Meetings

64

SECTION 1504

Quorum; Action

64

SECTION 1505

Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings

65

SECTION 1506

Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings

65

ARTICLE SIXTEEN - CONVERSION OF SECURITIES

66

SECTION 1601

Applicability of Article; Conversion Privilege and Conversion Price

66

SECTION 1602

Exercise of Conversion Privilege

67

SECTION 1603

Fractions of Shares

67

SECTION 1604

Adjustment of Conversion Price

68

SECTION 1605

Notice of Adjustments of Conversion Price

71

SECTION 1606

Notice of Certain Corporate Action

71

SECTION 1607

Company to Reserve Common Stock

71

SECTION 1608

Taxes on Conversion

72

SECTION 1609

Covenants as to Common Stock

72

SECTION 1610

Cancellation of Converted Securities

72

 

iii


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

SECTION 1611

Provisions in Case of Consolidation, Merger or Sale of Assets; Special Distributions

72

SECTION 1612

Trustee Adjustment Disclaimer; Company Determination Final

73

SECTION 1613

When No Adjustment Required

73

SECTION 1614

Equivalent Adjustments

74

 

iv


 

SCHOLAR ROCK HOLDING CORPORATION

 

Reconciliation and tie between the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act” or “TIA”) and the Indenture, dated as of           , 20  .

 

Trust Indenture Act Section

 

Indenture Section

§ 310(a)(1)

 

607

(a)(2)

 

607

(b)

 

607, 608

§ 312(c)

 

701

§ 313(a)

 

702

(c)

 

702

§ 314(a)

 

703

(a)(4)

 

1008

(c)(1)

 

102

(c)(2)

 

102

(e)

 

102

§ 315(b)

 

601

§ 316(a) (last sentence)

 

101(“Outstanding”)

(a)(1)(A)

 

502, 512

(a)(1)(B)

 

513

(b)

 

508

§ 317(a)(1)

 

503

(a)(2)

 

504

§ 318(a)

 

111

(c)

 

111

 

NOTE:  This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

 

Attention should also be directed to Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, which provides that the provisions of Sections 310 to and including 317 of the Trust Indenture Act are a part of and govern every qualified indenture, whether or not physically contained therein.

 

v


 

INDENTURE, dated as of       , 20  , between SCHOLAR ROCK HOLDING CORPORATION, a corporation organized under the laws of the State of Delaware (hereinafter called the “Company”), having its principal office at 620 Memorial Drive, 2nd Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, and        , as Trustee hereunder (hereinafter called the “Trustee”), having a Corporate Trust Office at        .

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

The Company deems it necessary to issue from time to time for its lawful purposes senior debt securities (hereinafter called the “Securities”) evidencing its unsecured and senior indebtedness, and has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of the Securities, to be issued in one or more Series as provided in this Indenture.

 

This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act” or “TIA”), that are deemed to be incorporated into this Indenture and shall, to the extent applicable, be governed by such provisions.

 

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid and legally binding agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE

 

WITNESSETH:

 

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of a Series thereof, as follows:

 

ARTICLE ONE - DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

 

SECTION 101                 Definitions.  For all purposes of this Indenture, except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(1)                                 the terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article, and include the plural as well as the singular;

 

(2)                                 all other terms used herein which are defined in the TIA, either directly or by reference therein, have the meanings assigned to them therein, and the terms “cash transactions” and “self-liquidating paper,” as used in TIA Section 311, shall have the meanings assigned to them in the rules of the Commission adopted under the TIA;

 

(3)                                 all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with GAAP;

 

(4)                                 any reference to an “Article” or a “Section” refers to an Article or Section, as the case may be, of this Indenture; and

 

(5)                                 the words “herein,” “hereof “and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

1


 

Act,” when used with respect to any Holder, has the meaning specified in Section 104.

 

Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person.  For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

 

Authenticating Agent” means any Person authorized by the Trustee pursuant to Section 611 hereof to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of one or more Series.

 

Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper, printed in the English language or in an official language of the country of publication, customarily published on each Business Day, whether or not published on Saturdays, Sundays or holidays, and of general circulation in each place in connection with which the term is used or in the financial community of each such place.  Whenever successive publications are required to be made in Authorized Newspapers, the successive publications may be made in the same or in different Authorized Newspapers in the same city meeting the foregoing requirements and in each case on any Business Day.

 

Bankruptcy Law” has the meaning specified in Section 501.

 

Bearer Security” means any Security established pursuant to Section 201 which is payable to the bearer.

 

Board of Directors” when used with reference to the Company, means the board of directors of the Company, or any committee of that board duly authorized to act hereunder, or any director or directors and/or officer or officers of the Company, to whom the board or committee shall have duly delegated its authority.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of (1) a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors or a duly authorized committee of the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification, or (2) a certificate signed by the director or directors and/or officer or officers to whom the Board of Directors shall have duly delegated its authority, together with a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification authorizing such delegation, and, in each case, delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day,” when used with respect to any Place of Payment or any other particular location referred to in this Indenture or in the Securities, means, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities issued pursuant to Section 301, any day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions in that Place of Payment or particular location are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any capital stock (including preferred stock), shares, interests, participations or other ownership interests (however designated) of such Person and any rights (other than debt securities convertible into or exchangeable for corporate stock), warrants or options to purchase any thereof.

 

Clearstream” means Clearstream Banking Luxembourg, société anonyme, or its successor.

 

2


 

Closing Price” means the closing price of a share of Common Stock of the Company as reported on The NASDAQ Global Select Market.

 

Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations thereunder.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties on such date.

 

Common Depository” has the meaning specified in Section 304.

 

Common Stock” means, with respect to any Person, all shares of capital stock issued by such Person other than Preferred Stock.

 

Company” means the Person named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.

 

Company Request” and “Company Order” mean, respectively, a written request or order signed in the name of the Company by the Chief Executive Officer, the President, or a Vice President, and by its Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Constituent Person” has the meaning specified in Section 1611.

 

Conversion Event” means the cessation of use of (i) a Foreign Currency both by the government of the country which issued such currency and for the settlement of transactions by a central bank or other public institutions of or within the international banking community, (ii) the ECU both within the European Monetary System and for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the European Communities or (iii) any currency unit (or composite currency) other than the ECU for the purposes for which it was established.

 

Conversion Price” has the meaning specified in Section 1601.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [ ].

 

corporation” includes corporations, associations, companies and business trusts.

 

coupon” means any interest coupon appertaining to a Bearer Security.

 

Covenant Defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 1403.

 

Custodian” has the meaning specified in Section 501.

 

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 307.

 

Defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 1402.

 

Distribution Record Date” has the meaning specified in Section 1611.

 

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Dividend Record Date” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

Dollar” or the sign “$” means a dollar or other equivalent unit in such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

 

DTC” means The Depository Trust Company and any successor to DTC in its capacity as depository for any Securities.

 

ECU” means the European Currency Unit as defined and revised from time to time by the Council of the European Communities.

 

Euroclear” means the operator of the Euroclear System.

 

European Communities” means the European Economic Community, the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community.

 

European Monetary System” means the European Monetary System established by the Resolution of December 5, 1978 of the Council of the European Communities.

 

Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Article Five.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was executed; provided, however, that in the event the Exchange Act is amended after such date, “Exchange Act” means to the extent required by any such amendment, the Exchange Act as so amended.

 

Exchange Date” has the meaning specified in Section 304.

 

FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency, currency unit or composite currency, including, without limitation, the ECU issued by the government of one or more countries other than the United States of America or by any recognized confederation or association of such governments.

 

GAAP” means, except as otherwise provided herein, generally accepted accounting principles, as in effect from time to time, as used in the United States applied on a consistent basis.

 

Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities issued to and registered in the name of the depository for such series, or its nominee, in accordance with Section 305, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 203.

 

Government Obligations” means (i) securities which are (A) direct obligations of the United States of America or the government which issued the Foreign Currency in which the Securities of a particular series are payable, for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (B) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America or such government which issued the Foreign Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America or such other government, which, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and (iii) a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Government Obligation or a specific payment of

 

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interest on or principal of any such Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

Holder” means, in the case of a Registered Security, the Person in whose name a Security is registered in the Security Register and, in the case of a Bearer Security, the bearer thereof and, when used with respect to any coupon, shall mean the bearer thereof.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may be supplemented or amended from time to time by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof, and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 301; provided, however, that, if at any time more than one Person is acting as Trustee under this instrument, “Indenture” shall mean, with respect to any one or more series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee, this instrument as originally executed or as it may be supplemented or amended from time to time by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of the or those particular series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee established as contemplated by Section 301, exclusive, however, of any provisions or terms which relate solely to other series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee, regardless of when such terms or provisions were adopted, and exclusive of any provisions or terms adopted by means of one or more indentures supplemental hereto executed and delivered after such Person had become such Trustee but to which such Person, as such Trustee, was not a party.

 

Indexed Security” means a Security the terms of which provide that the principal amount thereof payable at Stated Maturity may be more or less than the principal face amount thereof at original issuance.

 

Interest,” when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, shall mean interest payable after Maturity.

 

Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

 

Make-Whole Amount,” when used with respect to any Security, means the amount, if any, in addition to principal (and accrued interest thereon, if any) which is required by a Security, under the terms and conditions specified therein or as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, to be paid by the Company to the Holder thereof in connection with any optional redemption or accelerated payment of such Security.

 

mandatory sinking fund payment” has the meaning specified in Section 1201.

 

Market Value of the Distribution” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal (or, if the context so requires, in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security, or lesser amount or, in the case of an Indexed Security, an amount determined in accordance with the specified terms of that Security) of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, notice of redemption, notice of option to elect repayment or otherwise.

 

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Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the Chief Executive Officer, the President, or a Vice President (whether or not designated by a number or word or words added before or after the title “Vice President”), and by the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel for the Company or who may be an employee of or other counsel for the Company.

 

optional sinking fund payment” has the meaning specified in Section 1201.

 

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security which provides for an amount (excluding any amounts attributable to accrued but unpaid interest thereon) less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502.

 

Outstanding,” when used with respect to Securities, means, as of the date of determination, all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

 

(i)                                     Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

(ii)                                  Securities, or portions thereof, for whose payment or redemption (including repayment at the option of the Holder) money in the necessary amount has been theretofore deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent) for the Holders of such Securities and any coupons appertaining thereto; provided, however, that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made;

 

(iii)                               Securities, except to the extent provided in Sections 1402 and 1403, with respect to which the Company has effected Defeasance and/or Covenant Defeasance as provided in Article Fourteen; and

 

(iv)                              Securities which have been paid pursuant to Section 306 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, other than any such Securities in respect of which there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Securities are held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Securities are valid obligations of the Company;

 

provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder or are present at a meeting of Holders for quorum purposes, and for the purpose of making the calculations required by TIA Section 313, (i) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that may be counted in making such determination or calculation and that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purpose shall be equal to the amount of principal thereof that would be (or shall have been declared to be) due and payable, at the time of such determination, upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502, (ii) the principal amount of any Security denominated in a Foreign Currency that may be counted in making such determination or calculation and that shall be deemed Outstanding for such purpose shall be equal to the Dollar equivalent, determined pursuant to Section 301 as of the date such Security is originally issued by the Company, of the principal amount (or, in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security, the Dollar equivalent as of such date of

 

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original issuance of the amount determined as provided in clause (i) above) of such Security, (iii) the principal amount of any Indexed Security that may be counted in making such determination or calculation and that shall be deemed outstanding for such purpose shall be equal to the principal face amount of such Indexed Security at original issuance, unless otherwise provided with respect to such Security pursuant to Section 301, and (iv) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in making such calculation or in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded.  Securities owned as provided in clause (iv) above which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.  In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice.

 

Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of (and premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any) or interest on any Securities or coupons on behalf of the Company.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof, or any other entity or organization.

 

Place of Payment,” when used with respect to the Securities of or within any series, means the place or places where the principal of (and premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any) and interest on such Securities are payable as specified as contemplated by Sections 301 and 1002.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 306 in exchange for or in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security or a Security to which a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security or the Security to which the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains.

 

Preferred Stock” means, with respect to any Person, all capital stock issued by such Person that is entitled to a preference or priority over any other capital stock issued by such Person with respect to any distribution of such Person’s assets, whether by dividend or upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

 

Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, in whole or in part, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Redemption Price,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price specified in the related Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture contemplated by and pursuant to Section 301, at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Reference Date” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

Registered Security” shall mean any Security which is registered in the Security Register.

 

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Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date on the Registered Securities of or within any series means the date specified for that purpose as contemplated by Section 301, whether or not a Business Day.

 

Repayment Date” means, when used with respect to any Security to be repaid at the option of the Holder, the date fixed for such repayment by or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Repayment Price” means, when used with respect to any Security to be repaid at the option of the Holder, the price at which it is to be repaid by or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any Vice President (whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “Vice President”), Assistant Vice President, Trust Officer or Assistant Trust Officer working in its Corporate Trust Department, or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and working in its Corporate Trust Department, and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

Rights” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

Rights Record Date” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

Security” and “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and, more particularly, means any Security or Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture; provided, however, that, if at any time there is more than one Person acting as Trustee under this Indenture, “Securities” with respect to the Indenture as to which such Person is Trustee shall have the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and shall more particularly mean Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, exclusive, however, of Securities of any series as to which such Person is not Trustee.

 

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” have the respective meanings specified in Section 305.

 

A “Series” of Securities means all securities denoted as part of the same series authorized by or pursuant to a particular Board Resolution.

 

Short Term Rights” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest on the Registered Securities of or within any series means a date fixed by the Company pursuant to Section 307.

 

Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security or a coupon representing such installment of interest as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

Trading Day” means any day on which The NASDAQ Global Select Market is open for business.

 

Trigger Events” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

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Trust Indenture Act” or “TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended and as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was executed, except as provided in Section 905.

 

Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder; provided, however, that if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean only the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

 

Unadjusted Distribution” has the meaning specified in Section 1604.

 

United States” means, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, the United States of America (including the states and the District of Columbia), its territories, its possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction.

 

United States Person” means, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, a corporation, partnership or other entity created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or an estate or trust the income of which is subject to United States Federal income taxation regardless of its source.

 

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity, computed at the time of issuance of a Security (or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such Security) and as set forth in such Security in accordance with generally accepted United States bond yield computation principles.

 

SECTION 102                 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.  Upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent, if any, have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or request as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or request, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (including certificates delivered pursuant to Section 1008) shall include:

 

(1)                                 a statement that each individual signing such certificate or opinion has read such condition or covenant and the definitions herein relating thereto;

 

(2)                                 a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(3)                                 a statement that, in the opinion of each such individual, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such condition or covenant has been complied with; and

 

(4)                                 a statement as to whether, in the opinion of each such individual, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

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SECTION 103                 Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee.  In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

 

Any certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon an Opinion of Counsel, or a certificate or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the opinion, certificate or representations with respect to the matters upon which his certificate or opinion is based are erroneous.  Any such Opinion of Counsel or certificate or representations may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information as to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company, unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

 

Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

 

SECTION 104                 Acts of Holders.

 

(a)                                 Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by Holders of the Outstanding Securities of all series or one or more series, as the case may be, may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by agents duly appointed in writing.  If Securities of a series are issuable as Bearer Securities, any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by Holders of Securities of such series may, alternatively, be embodied in and evidenced by the record of Holders of Securities of such series voting in favor thereof, either in person or by proxies duly appointed in writing, at any meeting of Holders of Securities of such series duly called and held in accordance with the provisions of Article Fifteen, or a combination of such instruments and any such record.  Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments or record or both are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company.  Such instrument or instruments and any such record (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments or so voting at any such meeting.  Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent, or of the holding by any Person of a Security, shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company and any agent of the Trustee or the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section.  The record of any meeting of Holders of Securities shall be proved in the manner provided in Section 1506.

 

(b)                                 The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness of such execution or by a certificate of a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him the execution thereof.  Where such execution is by a signer acting in a capacity other than his individual capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of his authority.  The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the Person executing the same, may also be proved in any other reasonable manner which the Trustee deems sufficient.

 

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(c)                                  The ownership of Registered Securities shall be proved by the Security Register.  As to any matter relating to beneficial ownership interests in any Global Security, the appropriate depository’s records shall be dispositive for purposes of this Indenture.

 

(d)                                 The ownership of Bearer Securities may be proved by the production of such Bearer Securities or by a certificate executed, as depository, by any trust company, bank, banker or other depository, wherever situated, if such certificate shall be deemed by the Trustee to be satisfactory, showing that at the date therein mentioned such Person had on deposit with such depository, or exhibited to it, the Bearer Securities therein described; or such facts may be proved by the certificate or affidavit of the Person holding such Bearer Securities, if such certificate or affidavit is deemed by the Trustee to be satisfactory.  The Trustee and the Company may assume that such ownership of any Bearer Security continues until (1) another certificate or affidavit bearing a later date issued in respect of the same Bearer Security is produced, or (2) such Bearer Security is produced to the Trustee by some other Person, or (3) such Bearer Security is surrendered in exchange for a Registered Security, or (4) such Bearer Security is no longer Outstanding.  The ownership of Bearer Securities may also be proved in any other manner which the Trustee deems sufficient.

 

(e)                                  If the Company shall solicit from the Holders of Registered Securities any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, the Company may, at its option, in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, fix in advance a record date for the determination of Holders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so.  Notwithstanding TIA Section 316(c), such record date shall be the record date specified in or pursuant to such Board Resolution, which shall be a date not earlier than the date 30 days prior to the first solicitation of Holders generally in connection therewith and not later than the date such solicitation is completed.  If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act may be given before or after such record date, but only the Holders of record at the close of business on such record date shall be deemed to be Holders for the purposes of determining whether Holders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities shall be computed as of such record date; provided that no such authorization, agreement or consent by the Holders on such record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than eleven months after the record date.

 

(f)                                   Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or upon the conversion thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done, omitted or suffered to be done by the Trustee, any Security Registrar, any Paying Agent, any Authenticating Agent or the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such action is made upon such Security.

 

SECTION 105                 Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company.  Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Holders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with,

 

(1)                                 the Trustee by any Holder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing to or with the Trustee at [ ] or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Company by the Trustee, Attention:  [ ]; or

 

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(2)                                 the Company by the Trustee or by any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to the Company addressed to it at the address of its principal office specified in the first paragraph of this Indenture or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company, Attention:  [ ]; or

 

(3)                                 either the Trustee or the Company, by the other party or by any Holder, shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if given by facsimile transmission, receipt confirmed by telephone followed by an original copy delivered by guaranteed overnight courier; if to the Trustee at facsimile number [ ]; and if to the Company at facsimile number [ ].

 

SECTION 106                 Notice to Holders; Waiver.  Where this Indenture provides for notice of any event to Holders of Registered Securities by the Company or the Trustee, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each such Holder affected by such event, at his address as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date, if any, and not earlier than the earliest date, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.  In any case where notice to Holders of Registered Securities is given by mail, neither the failure to mail such notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed, to any particular Holder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Registered Securities or the sufficiency of any notice to Holders of Bearer Securities given as provided herein.  Any notice mailed to a Holder in the manner herein prescribed shall be conclusively deemed to have been received by such Holder, whether or not such Holder actually receives such notice.

 

If by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to give such notice by mail, then such notification to Holders of Registered Securities as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification to such Holders for every purpose hereunder.

 

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein or otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Bearer Securities of any event, such notice shall be sufficiently given if published in an Authorized Newspaper in The City of New York and in such other city or cities as may be specified in such Securities on a Business Day, such publication to be not later than the latest date, if any, and not earlier than the earliest date, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.  Any such notice shall be deemed to have been given on the date of such publication or, if published more than once, on the date of the first such publication.

 

If by reason of the suspension of publication of any Authorized Newspaper or Authorized Newspapers or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to publish any notice to Holders of Bearer Securities as provided above, then such notification to Holders of Bearer Securities as shall be given with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute sufficient notice to such Holders for every purpose hereunder.  Neither the failure to give notice by publication to any particular Holder of Bearer Securities as provided above, nor any defect in any notice so published, shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Bearer Securities or the sufficiency of any notice to Holders of Registered Securities given as provided herein.

 

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver required or permitted under this Indenture shall be in the English language, except that any published notice may be in an official language of the country of publication.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the

 

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equivalent of such notice.  Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

SECTION 107                 Counterparts; Effect of Headings and Table of Contents.  This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but all such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same Indenture.  The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

SECTION 108                 Successors and Assigns.  All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

SECTION 109                 Severability Clause.  In case any provision in this Indenture or in any Security or coupon shall be held invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

SECTION 110                 Benefits of Indenture.  Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities or coupons, if any, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto, any Security Registrar, any Paying Agent, any Authenticating Agent and their successors hereunder and the Holders any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

 

SECTION 111                 Governing Law.  This Indenture and the Securities and coupons shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.  This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the TIA that are required to be part of this Indenture and shall, to the extent applicable, be governed by such provisions.

 

SECTION 112                 Legal Holidays.  In any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, Repayment Date, sinking fund payment date, Stated Maturity or Maturity of any Security or the last date on which a Holder has the right to convert or exchange a Security shall not be a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security or coupon other than a provision in the Securities of any series which specifically states that such provision shall apply in lieu hereof), payment of interest or principal (and premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any) or conversion or exchange of such Security need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but (except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture with respect to such Security) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if  made on the Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, Repayment Date or sinking fund payment date, or at the Stated Maturity or Maturity, or on such last day for conversion or exchange, provided that no interest shall accrue on the amount so payable for the period from and after such Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, Repayment Date, sinking fund payment date, Stated Maturity or Maturity, as the case may be.

 

SECTION 113                 Limited Liability; Immunity of Stockholders, Directors, Officers and Agents of the Company.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or of the Securities of any series to the contrary, no recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in any Security, or for the payment of any sums due on account of any indebtedness evidenced thereby, including without limitation principal, premium or interest, if any, or for any claim based on this Indenture or any Security or otherwise in respect of this Indenture or any Security, shall be had, whether by levy or execution or otherwise, against (i) the Company, the Company’s assets or against any past, present or future stockholder, employee, officer, director or agent, as such, of the Company or any successor, either directly or through the Company or any successor, under any rule of law, statute, constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty, or by any legal or equitable

 

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proceeding or otherwise, nor shall any such parties be personally liable for any such amounts, obligations or claims, or liable for any deficiency judgment based thereon or with respect thereto, it being expressly understood that the sole remedies hereunder or under any other document with respect to the Securities against such parties with respect to such amounts, obligations or claims shall be against the Company and that all such liability of and recourse against such parties is expressly waived and released by the acceptance of the Securities by the Holders and as part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

SECTION 114                 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.  If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision hereof which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by any of the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, such required provision shall control.  If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act that may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

 

ARTICLE TWO - SECURITIES FORMS

 

SECTION 201                 Forms of Securities.  The Registered Securities, if any, of each series and the Bearer Securities, if any, of each series and related coupons shall be substantially in the form of Exhibit A hereto or in such other form as shall be established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or approved from time to time by or pursuant to a Board Resolution in accordance with Section 301, shall have such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto, and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any over-the-counter market or securities exchange, on which the Securities may be quoted or listed, or to conform to usage.

 

Unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, Bearer Securities shall have interest coupons attached.

 

The definitive Securities and coupons shall be printed, lithographed or engraved or produced by any combination of these methods on a steel engraved border or steel engraved borders or mechanically reproduced on safety paper or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities or coupons, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities or coupons.

 

SECTION 202                 Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.  Subject to Section 611, the Trustee’s certificate of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

 

 

,

 

 

as Trustee

 

 

 

 

 

Dated:

 

 

By:

 

 

 

 

 

Authorized Signatory

 

SECTION 203                 Securities Issuable in Global Form.  If Securities of or within a series are issuable in the form of one or more Global Securities, then, notwithstanding clause (8) of Section 301 and the

 

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provisions of Section 302, any such Global Security or Securities may provide that it or they shall represent the aggregate amount of all Outstanding Securities of such series (or such lesser amount as is permitted by the terms thereof) from time to time endorsed thereon and may also provide that the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities of such series represented thereby may from time to time be increased or decreased to reflect exchanges.  Any endorsement of any Global Security to reflect the amount, or any increase or decrease in the amount, or changes in the rights of Holders thereof, of Outstanding Securities represented thereby shall be made (or caused to be made) by the Trustee in such manner or by such Person or Persons as shall be specified therein or in the Company Order to be delivered to the Trustee pursuant to Section 303 or 304.  Subject to the provisions of Section 303 and, if applicable, Section 304, the Trustee shall deliver and redeliver any Global Security in permanent global form in the manner and upon instructions given by the Person or Persons specified therein or in the applicable Company Order.  If a Company Order pursuant to Section 303 or 304 has been, or simultaneously is, delivered, any instructions by the Company with respect to endorsement or delivery or redelivery of a Global Security shall be in writing but need not comply with Section 102 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel.

 

The provisions of the last sentence of Section 303 shall apply to any Security represented by a Global Security if such Security was never issued and sold by the Company and the Company delivers to the Trustee the Global Security together with written instructions (which need not comply with Section 102 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel) with regard to the reduction in the principal amount of Securities represented thereby, together with the written statement contemplated by the last sentence of Section 303.

 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 307, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, payment of principal of and any premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any, and interest on any Global Security in permanent global form shall be made to the registered Holder thereof.

 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 308 and except as provided in the preceding paragraph, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company and the Trustee shall treat as the Holder of such principal amount of Outstanding Securities represented by a permanent Global Security (i) in the case of a permanent Global Security in registered form, the Holder of such permanent Global Security in registered form, or (ii) in the case of a permanent Global Security in bearer form, Euroclear or Clearstream.

 

Any Global Security authenticated and delivered hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning set forth in the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of a Depository or a nominee of a Depository.  This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository or by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or its nominee to a successor Depository or its nominee.”

 

ARTICLE THREE - THE SECURITIES

 

SECTION 301                 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.  The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

 

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The Securities may be issued in one or more series, each of which shall be authorized pursuant to Board Resolutions of the Company.  There shall be established in one or more Board Resolutions or pursuant to authority granted by one or more Board Resolutions and, subject to Section 303, set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series:

 

(1)                                 The title of the Securities of the series, including “CUSIP” numbers (which shall distinguish the Securities of such series from all other series of Securities);

 

(2)                                 Any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or upon conversion of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 304, 305, 306, 906, 1107 or 1305) and the minimum authorized denominations with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(3)                                 The price (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued and, if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or (if applicable) the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into Common Stock or Preferred Stock or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

(4)                                 If convertible, the terms on which such Securities are convertible, including the initial conversion price or rate and the conversion period and any applicable limitations on the ownership or transferability of Common Stock or Preferred Stock receivable on conversion;

 

(5)                                 The date or dates, or the method for determining such date or dates, on which the principal of such Securities will be payable;

 

(6)                                 The rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable), or the method by which such rate or rates shall be determined, at which such Securities will bear interest, if any;

 

(7)                                 The date or dates, or the method for determining such date or dates, from which any such interest will accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which any such interest will be payable, the Regular Record Dates for such Interest Payment Dates, or the method by which such dates shall be determined, the Persons to whom such interest shall be payable, and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

(8)                                 The Make-Whole Amount, if any, or method for determining the Make-Whole Amount, if any, payable with respect to such Securities, and the terms upon which such amount, if any, will be payable;

 

(9)                                 The place or places where the principal of (and premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any) and interest, if any, on such Securities will be payable, where such Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or conversion or exchange and where notices or demands to or upon the Company in respect of such Securities and this Indenture may be served;

 

(10)                          The period or periods, if any, within which, the price or prices at which and the other terms and conditions upon which such Securities may, pursuant to any optional or mandatory redemption provisions, be redeemed, as a whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

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(11)                          The obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, repay or purchase such Securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the other terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be redeemed, repaid or purchased, as a whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(12)                          If other than Dollars, the currency or currencies in which such Securities are denominated and payable, which may be a foreign currency or units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies, the manner of determining the equivalent thereof in Dollars for purposes of the definition of “Outstanding” in Section 101, and the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 

(13)                          Whether the amount of payments of principal of (and premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any, including any amount due upon redemption, if any) or interest on such Securities may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may, but need not be, based on the yield on or trading price of other securities, including United States Treasury securities or on a currency, currencies, currency unit or units, or composite currency or currencies) and the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(14)                          Whether the principal of (and premium or Make-Whole Amount, if any) or interest on the Securities of the series are to be payable, at the election of the Company or a Holder thereof, in a currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies other than that in which such Securities are denominated or stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made, and the time and manner of, and identity of the exchange rate agent with responsibility for, determining the exchange rate between the currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such Securities are denominated or stated to be payable and the currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such Securities are to be so payable;

 

(15)                          Provisions, if any, granting special rights to the Holders of Securities of the series upon the occurrence of such events as may be specified;

 

(16)                          Any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or covenants of the Company with respect to Securities of the series, whether or not such Events of Default or covenants are consistent with the Events of Default or covenants set forth herein;

 

(17)                          Whether and under what circumstances the Company will pay any additional amounts on such Securities in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem such Securities in lieu of making such payment;

 

(18)                          Whether Securities of the series are to be issuable as Registered Securities, Bearer Securities (with or without coupons) or both, any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of Bearer Securities and the terms upon which Bearer Securities of the series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of the series and vice versa (if permitted by applicable laws and regulations), whether any Securities of the series are to be issuable initially in temporary global form and whether any Securities of the series are to be issuable in permanent global form with or without coupons and, if so, whether beneficial owners of interests in any such permanent global Security may, or shall be required to, exchange such interests for Securities of

 

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such series and of like tenor of any authorized form and denomination and the circumstances under which any such exchanges may, or shall be required to, occur, if other than in the manner provided in the Indenture, and, if Registered Securities of the series are to be issuable as a Global Security, the identity of the depository for such series;

 

(19)                          The date as of which any Bearer Securities of the series and any temporary Global Security representing outstanding Securities of the series shall be dated if other than the date of original issuance of the first Security of the series to be issued;

 

(20)                          The Person to whom any interest on any Registered Security of the series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest the manner in which, or the Person to whom, any interest on any Bearer Security of the series shall be payable, if otherwise than upon presentation and surrender of the coupons appertaining thereto as they severally mature, and the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary Global Security on an Interest Payment Date will be paid if other than in the manner provided herein; provided, however, in each case, that the manner of determining such Person or making such payment shall be acceptable to the Trustee (as not imposing on it any undue administrative burden or risk of liability);

 

(21)                          The applicability, if any, of the Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance provisions of Article Fourteen hereof to the Securities of the series;

 

(22)                          The obligation, if any, of the Company to permit the conversion of the Securities of such series into Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as the case may be, and the terms and conditions upon which such conversion shall be effected (including, without limitation, the initial conversion price or rate, the conversion period, any adjustment of the applicable conversion price and any requirements relative to the reservation of such shares for purposes of conversion);

 

(23)                          If the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and/or terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

(24)                          Designation of the Trustee, if different from the Trustee under the Indenture, with respect to such series and the terms applicable to such Trustee (which shall be accepted by such Trustee by its execution and delivery of a supplemental indenture as provided therein); and

 

(25)                          Any other terms of the series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture).

 

All Securities of any one series and the coupons appertaining to any Bearer Securities of such series shall be substantially identical except, in the case of Registered Securities, as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to such Board Resolution (subject to Section 303) and set forth in such Officers’ Certificate or in any such indenture supplemental hereto.  All Securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened, without the consent of the Holders, for issuances of additional Securities of such series.

 

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If any of the terms of the Securities of any series are established by action taken pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, a copy of an appropriate record of such action(s) shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate setting forth the terms of the Securities of such series.

 

SECTION 302                 Denominations.  The Securities of each series shall be issuable in such denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 301.  With respect to Securities of any series denominated in Dollars, in the absence of any such provisions with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of such series, other than Global Securities (which may be of any denomination), shall be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof or the equivalent amounts thereof in the case of Securities denominated in the Foreign Currency or currency unit.

 

SECTION 303                 Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating.  The Securities and any coupons appertaining thereto shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, under its corporate seal reproduced thereon, and attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries.  The signature of any of these officers on the Securities and coupons may be manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such authorized officer and may be imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities.

 

Securities and coupons bearing the manual or facsimile signatures of individuals who were at any time the proper officers of the Company shall bind the Company, notwithstanding that such individuals or any of them have ceased to hold such offices prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such offices at the date of such Securities or coupons.

 

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series, together with any coupon appertaining thereto, executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a Company Order for the authentication and delivery of such Securities (accompanied by a copy of the Board Resolution and the Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture contemplated by Section 301), and the Trustee in accordance with the Company Order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities; provided, however, that, in connection with its original issuance, no Bearer Security shall be mailed or otherwise delivered to any location in the United States; and provided further that, unless otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, a Bearer Security may be delivered in connection with its original issuance only if the Person entitled to receive such Bearer Security shall have furnished a certificate to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, in the form set forth in Exhibit B-1 to this Indenture or such other certificate as may be specified by the Company with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, dated no earlier than 15 days prior to the earlier of the date on which such Bearer Security is delivered and the date on which any temporary Security first becomes exchangeable for such Bearer Security in accordance with the terms of such temporary Security and this Indenture.  If any Security shall be represented by a permanent Global Security, then, for purposes of this Section and Section 304, the notation of a beneficial owner’s interest therein upon original issuance of such Security or upon exchange of a portion of a temporary Global Security shall be deemed to be delivery in connection with its original issuance of such beneficial owner’s interest in such permanent Global Security.  Except as permitted by Section 306, the Trustee shall not authenticate and deliver any Bearer Security unless all appurtenant coupons for interest then matured have been detached and canceled.

 

If all the Securities of any series are not to be issued at one time and if the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture establishing such series shall so permit, such Company Order may set forth procedures acceptable to the Trustee for the issuance of such Securities and determining the terms of particular Securities of such series, such as interest rate or formula, maturity date, date of issuance and date from which interest shall accrue.  In authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional

 

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responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to TIA Section 315(a) through 315(d)) shall be fully protected in relying upon,

 

(i)                                     an Opinion of Counsel stating that

 

(a)                                 the form or forms of such Securities and any coupons have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

(b)                                 the terms of such Securities and any coupons have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture; and

 

(c)                                  such Securities, together with any coupons appertaining thereto, when completed by appropriate insertions and executed and delivered by the Company to the Trustee for authentication in accordance with this Indenture, authenticated and delivered by the Trustee in accordance with this Indenture and issued by the Company in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute legal, valid and legally binding obligations of the Company, enforceable in accordance with their terms, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent transfer, reorganization and other similar laws of general applicability relating to or affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights generally and to general equitable principles; and

 

(i)                                     an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the issuance of the Securities have been complied with and that, to the best of the knowledge of the signers of such certificate, that no Event of Default with respect to any of the Securities shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

If such form or terms have been so established, the Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities (or to enter into the related supplemental indenture, if applicable) if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties, obligations or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 301 and of the preceding paragraph, if all the Securities of any series are not to be issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver an Officers’ Certificate otherwise required pursuant to Section 301 or a Company Order, or an Opinion of Counsel or an Officers’ Certificate otherwise required pursuant to the preceding paragraph at the time of issuance of each Security of such series, but such order, opinion and certificates, with appropriate modifications to cover such future issuances, shall be delivered at or before the time of issuance of the first Security of such series.

 

Each Registered Security shall be dated the date of its authentication and each Bearer Security shall be dated as of the date specified as contemplated by Section 301.

 

No Security or coupon shall be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose unless there appears on such Security or Security to which such coupon appertains a certificate of authentication substantially in the form provided for herein duly executed by the Trustee (subject to Section 611) by manual signature of an authorized signatory, and such certificate upon any Security shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that such Security has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any Security (including a Global Security) shall have been authenticated and delivered hereunder but never issued and sold by the Company, and the Company shall deliver such Security to the Trustee for cancellation as provided in Section 309 together with a written statement (which need not

 

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comply with Section 102 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel) stating that such Security has never been issued and sold by the Company, for all purposes of this Indenture such Security shall be deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder and shall never be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

SECTION 304                 Temporary Securities.

 

(a)                                 Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and upon Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities which are printed, lithographed, typewritten, mimeographed or otherwise produced, in any authorized denomination, substantially of the tenor of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, in registered form, or, if authorized, in bearer form with one or more coupons or without coupons, and with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as the officers executing such Securities may determine, as conclusively evidenced by their execution of such Securities.  In the case of Securities of any series, such temporary Securities may be in global form.

 

Except in the case of temporary Global Securities (which shall be exchanged as otherwise provided herein or as otherwise provided in or pursuant to a Board Resolution or supplemental indenture pursuant to Section 301), if temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of that series to be prepared without unreasonable delay.  After the preparation of definitive Securities of such series, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series upon surrender of the temporary Securities of such series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, without charge to the Holder.  Upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities of any series (accompanied by any non-matured coupons appertaining thereto), the Company shall execute (in accordance with a Company Order delivered at or prior to the authentication of the first definitive security to such series) and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a like principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series of authorized denominations; provided, however, that no definitive Bearer Security shall be delivered in exchange for a temporary Registered Security; and provided further that a definitive Bearer Security shall be delivered in exchange for a temporary Bearer Security only in compliance with the conditions set forth in Section 303.  Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.

 

(b)                                 Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to a Board Resolution or supplemental indenture pursuant to Section 301, the following provisions of this Section 304(b) shall govern the exchange of temporary Securities other than through the facilities of the DTC.  If any such temporary Security is issued in global form, then such temporary Global Security shall, unless otherwise provided therein, be delivered to the London office of a depository or common depository upon and pursuant to written direction of the Company (the “Common Depository”), for the benefit of Euroclear and Clearstream, for credit to the respective accounts of the beneficial owners of such Securities (or to such other accounts as they may direct).

 

Without unnecessary delay but in any event not later than the date specified in, or determined pursuant to the terms of, any such temporary Global Security (the “Exchange Date”), the Company shall deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, in aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such temporary Global Security, executed by the Company.  On or after the Exchange Date, such temporary Global Security shall be surrendered by the Common Depository to the Trustee, as the Company’s agent for such purpose, to be exchanged, in whole or from time to time in part, for definitive Securities without charge, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in exchange for each portion of such temporary Global Security, an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series of authorized denominations and of like tenor as the portion of such temporary Global Security to

 

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be exchanged.  The definitive Securities to be delivered in exchange for any such temporary Global Security shall be in bearer form, registered form, permanent global bearer form or permanent global registered form, or any combination thereof, as specified as contemplated by Section 301, and, if any combination thereof is so specified, as requested by the beneficial owner thereof  (as directed by or pursuant to information provided by the Common Depository); provided, however, that, unless otherwise specified in such temporary Global Security, upon such presentation by the Common Depository, such temporary Global Security shall be accompanied by a certificate dated the Exchange Date or a subsequent date and signed by Euroclear as to the portion of such temporary Global Security held for its account then to be exchanged and a certificate dated the Exchange Date or a subsequent date and signed by Clearstream as to the portion of such temporary Global Security held for its account then to be exchanged, each in the form set forth in Exhibit B-2 to this Indenture or in such other form as may be established pursuant to Section 301; and provided further that definitive Bearer Securities shall be delivered in exchange for a portion of a temporary Global Security only in compliance with the requirements of Section 303.

 

Unless otherwise specified in such temporary Global Security, the interest of a beneficial owner of Securities of a series in a temporary Global Security shall be exchanged for definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor following the Exchange Date when the account holder instructs Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, to request such exchange on his behalf and delivers to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, a certificate in the form set forth in Exhibit B-1 to this Indenture (or in such other form as may be established pursuant to Section 301), dated no earlier than 15 days prior to the Exchange Date, copies of which certificate shall be available from the offices of Euroclear and Clearstream, the Trustee, any Authenticating Agent appointed for such series of Securities and each Paying Agent.  Unless otherwise specified in such temporary Global Security, any such exchange shall be made free of charge to the beneficial owners of such temporary Global Security, except that a Person receiving definitive Securities must bear the cost of insurance, postage, transportation and the like unless such Person takes delivery of such definitive Securities in person at the offices of Euroclear or Clearstream.  Definitive Securities in bearer form to be delivered in exchange for any portion of a temporary Global Security shall be delivered only to an address located outside the United States.

 

Until exchanged in full as hereinabove provided, the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor authenticated and delivered hereunder, except that, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, interest payable on a temporary Global Security on an Interest Payment Date for Securities of such series occurring prior to the applicable Exchange Date shall be payable to Euroclear and Clearstream on such Interest Payment Date upon delivery by Euroclear and Clearstream to the Trustee of a certificate or certificates in the form set forth in Exhibit B-2 to this Indenture (or in such other forms as may be established pursuant to Section 301), for credit without further interest on or after such Interest Payment Date to the respective accounts of Persons who are the beneficial owners of such temporary Global Security on such Interest Payment Date and who have each delivered to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, a certificate dated no earlier than 15 days prior to the Interest Payment Date occurring prior to such Exchange Date in the form set forth as Exhibit B-1 to this Indenture (or in such other forms as may be established pursuant to Section 301).  Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein contained, the certifications made pursuant to this paragraph shall satisfy the certification requirements of the preceding two paragraphs of this Section 304(b) and of the third paragraph of Section 303 of this Indenture and the interests of the Persons who are the beneficial owners of the temporary Global Security with respect to which such certification was made will be exchanged for definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor on the Exchange Date or the date of certification if such date occurs after the Exchange Date, without further act or deed by such beneficial owners.  Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, no payments of principal or interest owing with respect to a beneficial interest in a temporary Global Security will be made unless and until such interest in such

 

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temporary Global Security shall have been exchanged for an interest in a definitive Security.  Any interest so received by Euroclear and Clearstream and not paid as herein provided shall be returned to the Trustee prior to the expiration of two years after such Interest Payment Date in order to be repaid to the Company.

 

With respect to Exhibit B-1 or B-2 to this Indenture, the Company may, in its discretion and if required or desirable under applicable law, substitute one or more other forms of such exhibits for such exhibits, eliminate the requirement that any or all certificate be provided, or change the time that any certificate may be required, provided that such substitute form or forms or notice of elimination or change of such certification requirement have theretofore been delivered to the Trustee with a Company Request and such form or forms, elimination or change is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 305                 Registration, Registration of Transfer, Conversion and Exchange.  The Company shall cause to be kept at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee or in any office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment a register for each series of Securities (the registers maintained in such office or in any such office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment being herein sometimes referred to collectively as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall provide for the registration of Registered Securities and of transfers of Registered Securities.  The Security Register shall be in written form or any other form capable of being converted into written form within a reasonable time.  The Trustee, at its Corporate Trust Office, is hereby initially appointed “Security Registrar” for the purpose of registering Registered Securities and transfers of Registered Securities on such Security Register as herein provided.  In the event that the Trustee shall cease to be Security Registrar, it shall have the right to examine, and be provided a copy of, the Security Register at all reasonable times.

 

Subject to the provisions of this Section 305, upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Registered Security of any series at any office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Registered Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of a like aggregate principal amount, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, and containing identical terms and provisions.

 

Subject to the provisions of this Section 305, at the option of the Holder, Registered Securities of any series may be exchanged for other Registered Securities of the same series, of any authorized denomination or denominations and of a like aggregate principal amount, containing identical terms and provisions, upon surrender of the Registered Securities to be exchanged at any such office or agency.  Whenever any such Registered Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Registered Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.  Unless otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities as contemplated by Section 301, Bearer Securities may not be issued in exchange for Registered Securities.

 

If (but only if) permitted by the applicable Board Resolution and (subject to Section 303) set forth in the applicable Officers’ Certificate, or in any indenture supplemental hereto, delivered as contemplated by Section 301, at the option of the Holder, Bearer Securities of any series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of the same series of any authorized denominations and of a like aggregate principal amount and tenor, upon surrender of the Bearer Securities to be exchanged at any such office or agency, with all unmatured coupons and all matured coupons in default thereto appertaining.  If the Holder of a Bearer Security is unable to produce any such unmatured coupon or coupons or matured coupon or coupons in default, any such permitted exchange may be effected if the Bearer Securities are accompanied by payment in funds acceptable to the Company (or to the Trustee for the Security in case of matured coupons in default) in an amount equal to the face amount of such missing coupon or coupons, or the surrender of such missing coupon or coupons may be waived by the Company and the Trustee if there

 

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is furnished to them such security or indemnity as they may require to save each of them and any Paying Agent harmless.  If thereafter the Holder of such Security shall surrender to any Paying Agent any such missing coupon in respect of which such a payment shall have been made, such Holder shall be entitled to receive the amount of such payment; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 1002, interest represented by coupons shall be payable only upon presentation and surrender of those coupons at an office or agency located outside the United States.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, in case a Bearer Security of any series is surrendered at any such office or agency in a permitted exchange for a Registered Security of the same series and like tenor after the close of business at such office or agency on (i) any Regular Record Date and before the opening of business at such office or agency on the relevant Interest Payment Date, or (ii) any Special Record Date and before the opening of business at such office or agency on the related proposed date for payment of Defaulted Interest, such Bearer Security shall be surrendered without the coupon relating to such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, and interest or Defaulted Interest, as the case may be, will not be payable on such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, in respect of the Registered Security issued in exchange for such Bearer Security, but will be payable only to the Holder of such coupon when due in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.  Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, any permanent Global Security shall be exchangeable only as provided in this paragraph.  If the depository for any permanent Global Security is DTC, then, unless the terms of such Global Security expressly permit such Global Security to be exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, a Global Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to a nominee of DTC, or by a nominee of DTC to DTC, or to a successor to DTC for such Global Security selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor to DTC.  If at any time DTC notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depository for the applicable Global Security or Securities or if at any time DTC c